Introduction to Meteorology-evolution atmosphere-2011-v2

Introduction to Meteorology-evolution atmosphere-2011-v2 -...

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Introduction to Meteorology Evolution and Composition of the atmosphere Leila M. V. Carvalho
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In the beginning… 4.5 billion years ago: formation of our solar system from gas and dust (nebula) generated from supernova explosion http://www.aerospaceweb.org/question/astronomy/q0247.shtml
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THE SOLAR SYSTEM THE SOLAR SYSTEM
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Earth Earth Neptune Neptune PLANETS OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM – NOT TO SCALE Venus Venus Jupiter Jupiter Mars Mars Mercury Mercury Saturn Saturn Uranus Uranus GAS PLANETS (OR JOVIAL PLANETS) GAS PLANETS (OR JOVIAL PLANETS) TERRESTRIAL PLANETS (OR ROCKY PLANETS) TERRESTRIAL PLANETS (OR ROCKY PLANETS)
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Earth first atmosphere The original atmosphere was primarily helium (He) and hydrogen (H). Heat from the still-molten crust, the sun, and a probably enhanced solar wind, dissipated this atmosphere. Gravity is important to keep an atmosphere. H, He have low molecular weight and may have achieved the escape velocity (the velocity necessary to escape gravity) Other explanations: gases would have been removed by collision between the growing Earth and other large bodies (failed planets). The tremendous energy released may have ejected the early atmosphere This theory explains the origin of the Moon and the tilting of the Earth axis to 23 o Artist impression of the giant impact that created the Moon. The sizes of the proto-Earth and the impactor are comparable with the results of computer simulations from the 90's. More recent simulations show the Earth-Moon system could also have resulted from a relatively smaller impactor http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth%27s_atmosphere#Evolution_of_Earth.27s_atmosphere
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The second atmosphere 4.4 billion years ago… About 4.4 billion years ago, the surface had cooled enough to form a crust. Many volcanoes released steam, carbon dioxide, and ammonia. This led to the early "second atmosphere", which was primarily carbon dioxide and water vapor, with some nitrogen but virtually no oxygen . Additional water was imported by collisions, probably with asteroids ejected from the asteroid belt under the influence of Jupiter's gravity. As it cooled much of the carbon dioxide was dissolved in the seas and precipitated out as carbonates. Simulations run at the University of Waterloo and University of Colorado suggest that it may have had up to 40% hydrogen . It is generally believed that the greenhouse effect, caused by high levels of carbon dioxide and methane, kept the Earth from freezing. Early Earth - The First Billion Years : Lava flowing from Earth's partially molten interior spread over the Earth's surface and solidified to form a thin crust, the rain evaporating on contact with the hot ground. As the temperature dropped, the oceans formed.
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Life and the formation of the third atmosphere CYANOBACTERIAS CYANOBACTERIAS existed approximately 3.3 billion years ago and were the first oxygen- producing evolving phototropic organisms. They were responsible for the initial conversion
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This note was uploaded on 12/28/2011 for the course GEOG 110 taught by Professor Leila during the Fall '09 term at UCSB.

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Introduction to Meteorology-evolution atmosphere-2011-v2 -...

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