# Solar Radiation and the Seasons_2011v2 -...

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Solar Radiation and the Seasons  1) 1) Energy transfer and heat Energy transfer and heat Outline Seasons in Southern California Definition of Work in Physics and application to the atmosphere Types of Energy (Potential and Kinetic energy) Heat transfer in the atmosphere (conduction, convection, radiative transfer) Concept of Black Body in physics Applications in Meteorology Conclusions

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Having a sense of season in Southern CA Big Wednesday Dec 5 -07 Summer ? Looks like Summer ? Looks like David Pu’u New Port-Oct 2007 Spring 2008 Spring 2008 By Burritoh
What drives these differences? Well, it is a common sense that temperature, wind, and daylight change from season to season (days are shorter, it is colder and windier , the waves are bigger, surf is better, and the swells are higher during winter and it rains more compared to summer).

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Let’s blame the sun… The sun is the main source of energy and ENERGY IS, BY COMMON SENSE, the ‘AGENT’ capable of setting an object in motion, warming a teapot, drive winds, waves, you name it. In physics, we use to say: energy is “the ability to do work” .
Familiar examples of work in physics ork= Force x Displacement ( ork= Force x Displacement ( Δ Δ s), in the same direction o s), in the same direction o ork = mass of the object [kg]x acceleration (m/s ork = mass of the object [kg]x acceleration (m/s 2 ] x ] x Δ Δ s ( s ( Δs celeration: change in speed – in the case from zero to given val celeration: change in speed – in the case from zero to given val Unity of Energy: Unity of Energy: (International System) (International System): Joule [J] =0.239 calorie Joule [J] =0.239 calorie

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How does this concept apply to the How does this concept apply to the atmosphere ? atmosphere ? Pressure Pressure Δ S Volume expands and work is done against the environment. This occurs too fast to transfer or receive heat from the environment Because no heat is transferred from or to the air parcel, volume increases and the air mass inside the air parcel cools down
Types or energy: Kinetic Energy= the energy of motion KE=mv 2 /2 Everything that moves has Kinetic Energy In a microscale: a molecule moving also has kinetic energy!!!! F. Araki and S. Kawahara

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Kinetic Energy of the molecules KE=mv 2 /2 proportional to Temperature Remember an important concept: in solid, liquid and Remember an important concept: in solid, liquid and gases the rate of vibration or random movement gases the rate of vibration or random movement determines the temperature of the objet determines the temperature of the objet THE GREATER THE RATE OF VIBRATION OR THE GREATER THE RATE OF VIBRATION OR ROTATION, THE HIGHER THE TEMPERATURE OF ROTATION, THE HIGHER THE TEMPERATURE OF THE SUBSTANCE THE SUBSTANCE
Energy that hasn’t been used yet and can be converted converted into Kinetic Energy into Kinetic Energy ! Question: how does a surfer apply this

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## This note was uploaded on 12/28/2011 for the course GEOG 110 taught by Professor Leila during the Fall '09 term at UCSB.

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Solar Radiation and the Seasons_2011v2 -...

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