Lecture03

# Lecture03 - Geographic Coordinates Analytical and Computer...

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Analytical and Computer Cartography Lecture 3: Review: Coordinate Systems Geographic Coordinates Geographic Coordinates • Geographic coordinates are the earth's latitude and longitude system, ranging from 90 degrees south to 90 degrees north in latitude and 180 degrees west to 180 degrees east in longitude. • A line with a constant latitude running east to west is called a parallel. • A line with constant longitude running from the north pole to the south pole is called a meridian. • The zero-longitude meridian is called the prime meridian and passes through Greenwich, England. • A grid of parallels and meridians shown as lines on a map is called a graticule Measurement: Just use GPS 6 decimal places 0.000001 o x 111111m =0.11m

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Geographic Coordinates as Data Problems of Geographic Coordinates • Spherical geometry difficult, need great circle arcs • Precision depends on mixed DMS and DD • Axes are not orthogonal • Difficult to use algorithms for measurements e.g. simple distance • Solution: Planar geometry • But, price is living with an imperfect
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• Fall '08
• Staff
• ........., Map projection, Geographic coordinate system, geographic coordinates, Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system, Coordinate systems

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Lecture03 - Geographic Coordinates Analytical and Computer...

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