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Final_Review_Session

Final_Review_Session - Final Review Session Tropical Storms...

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Final Review Session
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Tropical Storms and Hurricanes Tropical Storms and Hurricanes
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Hurricanes obtain most of their energy from the latent heat released by condensation and are most common where a deep layer of warm water fuels them. August and September are the prime hurricane months in the Northern Hemisphere, while January to March is the main season in the Southern Hemisphere.
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Gray’s factors for tropical cyclone formation Geographic Coriolis Force sufficient to give initial cyclonic spin Dynamic Low vertical wind shear Thermodynamic High values of relative humidity Sea Surface Temperatures > 26-27 o C (~79-81 o F) to a depth of 60 m (~200 ft) An unstable atmosphere
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Coriolis effect and hurricanes Top view No Coriolis Effects With Coriolis Effects (Northern Hemisphere example) Low Low
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2 nd Inhibiting factor: wind shear Speed Shear Direction Shear
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Heat and moisture spread out over a larger area Heat and moisture focused over a small area The effect of Shear on the organization of the storm More efficient in organizing tropical cyclones
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High relative humidity required: one of the most important ingredients to form hurricanes is the release of latent heat to the atmosphere o Latent heat released due to condensation warms the atmosphere and cause the decrease of pressure at surface Low pressure o As sea level pressure decreases, more air converges at the center of the storm, more latent heat is released and the storm becomes stronger and more powerful, with increasi winds
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Hurricanes often originate as Tropical Disturbances Tropical disturbances are disorganized groups of thunderstorms having weak pressure gradients and little or no rotation. Most tropical disturbances that enter the western Atlantic and become hurricanes originate in easterly waves, large undulations or ripples in the normal trade wind pattern. Where do Hurricanes originate
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A cross section of a typical hurricane.
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Cross-section of a hurricane showing cloud patterns and air flows (a), rainfall intensities (b), pressure distributions (c), and wind speed (d).
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Comparison of hurricanes and mid-latitude cyclones Similarities: Type of low pressure system Wind direction Differences: Energy derivation Strongest winds Surface charts
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Storm surge is a rise in water level induced by a hurricane. Strong winds blowing toward a coast force surface waters landward and thereby elevate sea level. Low atmospheric pressure in a hurricane also contributes to the storm surge. For every millibar of pressure decrease, the water level rises 1 cm. STORM SURGE EFFECT
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SEASONAL VARIATIONS IN REGIONAL SEASONAL VARIATIONS IN REGIONAL CIRCULATION SYSTEMS: THE CIRCULATION SYSTEMS: THE MONSOONS MONSOONS Rodrigo J Bombardi Rod
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Monsoon DEFINITION Prevailing wind direction shifts by at least 120º betwen January and July Average frequency of preveiling directions in January and July exceeds 40%
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The Monsoon Makers 1) Seasonal Heating 2) Moisture Processes 3) The Earth’s Rotation
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