Tropical_Meteorology_Monsoon-part_II_2010

Tropical_Meteorology_Monsoon-part_II_2010 - REGIONAL...

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REGIONAL MONSOON SYSTEMS
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Outline Definition of Monsoon ü The Monsoon Makers ü Annual Monsoon Cycle ü Variability of the monsoons Regional Monsoon Systems ü The Indian Monsoon ü The East Asia Monsoon ü The Australian Monsoon/ East Asia Winter Monsoon ü The African Monsoon ü The American Monsoons
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1) Indian Monsoon The Indian monsoon is made up of a number of components: 1. The monsoon trough over northern India; 2. The Mascarene anti-cyclonic system; 3. The low level cross-equatorial jet; 4. The Tibetan high pressure system; 5. The tropical easterly jet; 6. Monsoon cloudiness 7. Rainfall
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The Indian Monsoon: surface features Monsoon trough: Formed over northern India; Northern Hemisphere Summer as part of the global ITCZ; Associated with surface low pressure ; Mascarene high: Situated over the south-east Indian Ocean (30o S, 50o E); Generates a large outflow of air ; The air moves north over the equator where it becomes a south-westerly flow known as the low level cross- equatorial jet ;
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The Indian Monsoon Fig. 2 from Krishnamurti and Bhalme (1976) Mean Sea Level Pressure for July
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The Indian Monsoon and surface circulation Monthly progression of the low-level cross-equatorial jet Fig 5 from Krishnamurti and Bhalme (1976) Low level cross-equatorial jet : ü Maximum intensity from June to August; ü The jet splits in two branches at around 10o N, 60o E at this time; ü Arrive over central west and southern coasts of India; ü Important for rainfall amounts over western India.
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Other important characteristics of the Indian Monsoon: The Tibetan high : ü Upper level anticyclone ; ü Located over northern India above the surface monsoon trough; (low level convergence matched by upper level divergence) ü Well established during summer; ü Moves in a south-southeast direction following the zone of maximum surface heating and low pressure; ü The outflow of air from the southern flank of the Tibetan high gives rise to the Tropical easterly jet . ü Tropical easterly jet lasts from June to September
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Low pressure Low level Convergence Upward vertical movement transports air molecules to upper levels. More molecules imply in the increase of the weight of the column of the air above a given upper level surface High pressure upper levels High pressure Low pressure upper levels Upper level surface Low level Divergence Northern Hemisphere
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Reasons for the easterly jet: 9 During summer, the Tibetan Plateau, which is located in subtropical regions, intensify the ascent increasing air pressure in high levels High level High Pressure Hot surface Low pressure system: Ascending air High Pressure High level Easterly Jet Temperature Gradient + -
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JAN APRIL JULY OCT Tropical Easterly High level winds and the Indian Monsoon Figs. 6 from Krishnamurti and Bhalme (1976) Monthly mean 200 hPa wind field Tibetan High Example of wind (85 knots) 50 + 3x10 + 5
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Convective processes and cloud in the Indian Monsoon Fig. 1 from Krishnamurti and Bhalme (1976) Cloud cover : ü Important component; ü Manifestation of moist convective processes; ü Varies in both space and time.
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