Water in the Tropical Atmosphere

Water in the Tropical Atmosphere - Water in the Tropical...

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Water in the Tropical Atmosphere
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The importance of the hydrological cycle in our planet Evaporation of water: transport heat from the surface to upper levels within the updrafts (ascending currents) Condensation Condensation releases Latent Heat releases Latent Heat to the atmosphere: to the atmosphere: main driving forces main driving forces for tropical for tropical disturbances disturbances Clouds reflect solar radiation back Clouds reflect solar radiation back to space resulting in low solar to space resulting in low solar incoming radiation available to incoming radiation available to heat the surface heat the surface Rainfall returns to Rainfall returns to the ground, is the ground, is transported by transported by rivers, used by the rivers, used by the biosphere and can biosphere and can evaporate and re- evaporate and re- enter the enter the atmosphere atmosphere
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Evapotranspiration Atmospheric moisture originates from the earth’s surface, where water is in its liquid or solid phase and is transformed into water vapor Water vapor can be transported vertically (ascending currents) or horizontally (winds)
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Water vapor originates from two processes: evaporation and evapotranspiration Evaporation Evaporation takes place from water, ice surfaces (even in tropical regions!) , soil and over land, rocks or vegetation that are wet after rainfall spiration spiration : is the same process as evaporation but carried out by organisms, mainly pl : is the same process as evaporation but carried out by organisms, mainly pl combination of combination of Transpiration + Evaporation =evapotranspiration Transpiration + Evaporation =evapotranspiration otranspiration otranspiration indicates the total flow of water vapor into the atmosphere. indicates the total flow of water vapor into the atmosphere. bols: E= evaporation, ET=evapotranspiration ; T= transpiration bols: E= evaporation, ET=evapotranspiration ; T= transpiration E ET ET ET T E E
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transpiration The roots of plants remove water from the soil water evaporates from leaf surface Rainforests like the Amazon represent a large source of transpiration and evaporation (evapotranspiration) to the atmosphere
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What controls evapotranspiration 1) The capacity of the air to take up water vapor 2) the amount of energy available for use in the evaporation and transpiration processes 3) degree of turbulence at the lower layers of the atmosphere necessary to transfer the water vapor near surface to higher levels in the atmosphere.
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Evaporation Condens Rate Rate Suppose that circles represent water vapor molecules Saturation for a given Temperature T is reached when evaporation rate equals the condensation rate. If one molecule evaporates another will condensate 1) The air capacity to take up water vapor
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1) The air capacity to take up water vapor This figure shows the relationships between the maximum quantity of water vapor that can be observed at a given
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Water in the Tropical Atmosphere - Water in the Tropical...

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