After Germany surrendered on May 7, 1945, the British interned Heisenberg and other German nuclear physicists for questioning. Heisenberg and all concerned were under the impression that their research was ahead of the Americans'. The Germans were, therefore, shocked and embarrassed when news arrived of the American bombing of Japan. In reality, their resources did not compare with those of the Manhattan Project, and they did not want to ask for more aid, since they sincerely believed that the bomb would not be completed before the war's end–no nation would want to spend valuable resources on an indefinite project. Some of the German scientists asserted that they had never wanted to complete the bomb because they feared what Hitler would do with it; instead, they concentrated on building a reactor for more constructive purposes. Such an account, however, seems questionable at best. When Heisenberg returned to Germany in 1946, his goal was to rebuild the state of
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