At the time of Heisenberg's arrival in 1920, Sommerfeld had already been engaged with one central problem: how to explain the behavior of spectra emitted by atoms. Atoms stimulated by energy would emit not an entire spectrum of radiation, but only specific lines corresponding to certain frequencies that were characteristic of whatever element the atom was. Moreover, x-ray spectroscopy posed two problems that had to be resolved. First was the problem of the lines splitting into doublets and triplets of lines, called multiplets. Second was the fact that these multiplets turned into a regular pattern of lines when the atom was exposed to a magnetic field. This anomaly was known as the Zeeman effect. Four weeks after Heisenberg's arrival, Sommerfeld invited him to take a look at the Zeeman effect data. Within a year Heisenberg proposed his atomic core model, which
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This note was uploaded on 12/26/2011 for the course HIST 101 taught by Professor Womer during the Fall '08 term at Texas State.