Heisenberg personally disapproved of Hitler's actions, but he sincerely hoped that Hitler's reign would be short-lived. Therefore, as encouraged by Max Planck, Heisenberg chose to remain in Germany to maintain the bright spots of German culture and science, with plans to facilitate their reconstruction after the Nazis' inevitable defeat. Moreover, Heisenberg was genuinely bound to the culture and the people and felt a sense of duty to remain there through the difficult times.Whether or not these reasons justify the compromises Heisenberg had to make is the standard by which history must judge him. In short, he chose nation over humanity and physics over ethics. One approach to evaluating his decision is to consider the absolute morality of his actions versus the actual, practical effect his actions had. Morally and
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