Under Sommerfeld, Heisenberg constructed his core model of the atom, which answered many of the current puzzles while also discarding cherished principles of quantum theory, including some of the work of Sommerfeld and Niels Bohr. The model would have to be refined considerably, but characteristics of it would find vindication later. At Munich, Heisenberg also met Wolfgang Pauli, and the two brilliant scientists clicked immediately, with much in common scientifically, if not personally. The two would continue to correspond and criticize each other's work throughout their careers. In July 1923, Heisenberg received his doctorate, but only with the lowest form of honors because he had performed miserably in the experimental portion of his physics orals. Embarrassed, he returned to Göttingen, where he had studied briefly with Max Born during Sommerfeld's absence. There, Heisenberg formulated his Zeeman principle,
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This note was uploaded on 12/26/2011 for the course HIST 101 taught by Professor Womer during the Fall '08 term at Texas State.