In 1511 Henry joined the alliance known as the Holy League with Spain, Venice, and the Holy Roman Empire to curb French aggression in Italy. Henry led an invasion of France in 1513, and his armies captured the cities of Tournai and Therouanne. While abroad, Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, defeated the Scots at the battle of Flodden. In 1515, Henry named Cardinal Thomas Wolsey his Lord Chancellor, and Wolsey soon took on many important duties in the day-to-day administration of the government and in foreign policy efforts. He was Henry's chief minister until 1529, when he was replaced as Chancellor by Sir Thomas More.In 1521, Henry published a book defending Catholic teaching against Martin Luther's positions on the seven sacraments. The Pope subsequently named the king "Defender of the Faith." By 1527, Henry was determined to divorce Queen Catherine, who had not
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Henry, Anne Boleyn, Chief Minister, married Jane Seymour, cardinal thomas wolsey