The removals were a disaster. Over the course of his term in office, Jackson signed more than ninety treaties with Indian tribes, but the government rarely honored these treaties in reality. Tribes were given little time to gather their belongings and were forced to move westward before any planning could be accomplished. Thousands died. Two tribes, the Fox and Sac, were massacred for crossing back over to the eastern shore of the Mississippi to plant grain. The Blackhawk fought a losing war against federal and state troops. Perhaps most serious of all, though, was the battle for Florida–Jackson's old stomping grounds. The Seminoles refused to leave their land, and federal troops spent years fighting them throughout the dense Everglades in southern Florida. Altogether, the war cost the U.S. more than fifteen million dollars. Still later, tragedy
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