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Basic Pacing Concepts 2

# Basic Pacing Concepts 2 - BASIC PACING CONCEPTS BASIC...

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BASIC PACING CONCEPTS BASIC PACING CONCEPTS Dr.M.Mohsin Hossain Dr.M.Mohsin Hossain MBBS, FCPS, MD MBBS, FCPS, MD Assistant Assistant Professor of Pardiology Professor of Pardiology NICVD, Dhaka NICVD, Dhaka Electrical Concepts Electrical Concepts Stimulation Stimulation Sensing Sensing PART-II PART-II

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ELECTRICAL CONCEPTS ELECTRICAL CONCEPTS
Voltage (V) Current (I) Impedance (R) Every Electrical Pacing Circuit Has Every Electrical Pacing Circuit Has the Following Characteristics: the Following Characteristics:

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Voltage Voltage Voltage is the force or “push” that causes electrons to move through a circuit In a pacing system, voltage is: Measured in volts Represented by the letter “V” Provided by the pacemaker battery Often referred to as amplitude
Current Current The flow of electrons in a completed circuit In a pacing system, current is: Measured in mA (milliamps) Represented by the letter “I” Determined by the amount of electrons that move through a circuit

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Impedance Impedance The opposition to current flow In a pacing system, impedance is: Measured in ohms Represented by the letter “R” ( for numerical values) The measurement of the sum of all resistance to the flow of current
Voltage, Current, and Impedance Voltage, Current, and Impedance are Interdependent are Interdependent The interrelationship of the three components can be likened to the flow of water through a hose Voltage represents the force with which . . . Current (water) is delivered through . . . A hose, or lead, where each component represents the total impedance: The nozzle, representing the electrode The tubing, representing the lead wire

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Voltage and Current Flow Voltage and Current Flow Spigot (voltage) turned up (high current drain) Spigot (voltage) turned low (low current drain)
Resistance and Current Flow Resistance and Current Flow “Normal” resistance “Low” resistance “High” resistance Low current flow High current flow

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Ohm’s Law is a Fundamental Ohm’s Law is a Fundamental Principle of Pacing That: Principle of Pacing That: V V I I R R V = I X R V = I X R I = V / R I = V / R R = V / I R = V / I Describes the relationship between voltage, current, and resistance x x
If you reduce the voltage by half, the current is also cut in half If you reduce the impedance by half, the current doubles If the impedance increases, the current decreases When Using Ohm’s Law When Using Ohm’s Law You Will Find That: You Will Find That:

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Ohm’s Law Can Be Used to Find Amounts of Ohm’s Law Can Be Used to Find Amounts of Current Passing Through Pacemaker Circuitry Current Passing Through Pacemaker Circuitry If: Voltage = 5 V Impedance = 500 What will the current be?
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