Enteroviruses - Enteroviruses AnOverview Enteroviruses...

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    Enteroviruses An Overview
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Enteroviruses Enteroviruses are a genus of the picornavirus family which replicate mainly in the gut. Single stranded naked RNA virus with icosahedral symmetry Unlike rhinoviruses, they are stable in acid pH Capsid has 60 copies each of 4 proteins, VP1, VP2, VP3 and VP4 arranged with icosahedral symmetry around a positive sense genome. At least 71 serotypes are known: divided into 5 groups Polioviruses Coxsackie A viruses Coxsackie B viruses Echoviruses Enteroviruses (more recently, new enteroviruses subtype have been allocated sequential numbers (68-71))
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Enterovirus Particles Courtesy of Linda M. Stannard, University of Cape Town, S.A.h
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History Poliovirus - first identified in 1909 by inoculation of specimens into monkeys. The virus was first grown in cell culture in 1949 which became the basis for vaccines. Coxsackieviruses - In 1948, a new group of agents were identified by inoculation into newborn mice from two children with paralytic disease. These agents were named coxsackieviruses after the town in New York State. Coxsackieviruses A and B were identified on the basis of the histopathological changes they produced in Newborn mice and their capacity to grow in cell cultures. Echoviruses - were later identified which produced cytopathic changes in cell culture and was nonpathogenic for newborn mice and subhuman primates. More recently, new enterovirus types have been allocated sequential numbers (68 - 71).
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Properties of Enteroviruses CPE in cell cultures Monkey Human cell Pathology in Group Virus types kidney culture newborn mice Major disease associations Poliovirus 3 types + + - Paralytic poliomyelitis, aseptic (1 - 3) meningitis, febrile illness. Coxsackie 23 types - or E - or E + Aseptic meningitis, herpangina, group A (A1-22, A24) febrile illness, conjunctivitis (A24), hand, foot and mouth disease. Coxsackie 6 types + + + Aseptic meningitis, severe neonatal group B (B1-6) disease, myopericarditis, Bornholm disease, encephalitis, febrile illness. Echovirus 31 types + E - Aseptic meningitis, rash, febrile (1-9, 11-27 illness, conjunctivitis, severe 29-33) generalized neonatal disease. Enterovirus 5 types + + - Polio-like illness, aseptic (68-72) meningitis, hand, foot and mouth (E71), epidemic conjunctivitis (E70) hepatitis A (E72)
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Poliovirus 3 serotypes of poliovirus (1, 2, and3) but no common antigen. Have identical physical properties but only share 36-52% nucleotide homology. Humans are the only susceptible hosts. Polioviruses are distributed globally. Before the availability of immunization, almost 100% of the population in developing countries before the age of 5. The availability of immunization and the poliovirus eradication campaign has eradicated poliovirus in most regions of the world except in the Indian Subcontinent and Africa.
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Enteroviruses - Enteroviruses AnOverview Enteroviruses...

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