hepatitis-1 - HepatitisAEViruses AnOverview Viral Hepatitis...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–14. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
    Hepatitis A-E Viruses An Overview
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
A A “Infectious” “Serum” Viral hepatitis Enterically transmitted Parenterally transmitted F, G, TTV ? other E E NANB NANB B B D D C C Viral Hepatitis - Historical Perspectives
Background image of page 2
Source of virus feces blood/ blood-derived body fluids blood/ blood-derived body fluids blood/ blood-derived body fluids feces Route of transmission fecal-oral percutaneous permucosal percutaneous permucosal percutaneous permucosal fecal-oral Chronic infection no yes yes yes no Prevention pre/post- exposure immunization pre/post- exposure immunization blood donor screening; risk behavior modification pre/post- exposure immunization; risk behavior modification ensure safe drinking water Type of Hepatitis A B C D E
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Hepatitis A Virus
Background image of page 4
Hepatitis A Virus Naked RNA virus Related  to  enteroviruses,  formerly  known  as  enterovirus 72, now put in its own family: heptovirus  One stable serotype only Difficult to grow in cell culture: primary marmoset cell  culture  and  also  in  vivo  in  chimpanzees  and  marmosets  4  genotypes  exist,  but  in  practice  most  of  them  are  group 1
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Incubation period: Average 30 days Range 15-50 days Jaundice by <6 yrs, <10% age group: 6-14 yrs, 40%-50% >14 yrs, 70%-80% Complications: Fulminant hepatitis Cholestatic hepatitis Relapsing hepatitis Chronic sequelae: None Hepatitis A - Clinical Features
Background image of page 6
Fecal HAV Symptoms 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 12 24 Hepatitis A Infection Total anti- HAV Titre ALT IgM anti-HAV Months after exposure Typical Serological Course
Background image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Close personal contact (e.g., household contact, sex contact, child day care centers) Contaminated food, water (e.g., infected food handlers, raw shellfish) Blood exposure (rare) (e.g., injecting drug use, transfusion) Hepatitis A Virus Transmission
Background image of page 8
Endemicity Disease Rate Peak Age of Infection Transmission Patterns High Low to High Early childhood Person to person; outbreaks uncommon Moderate High Late childhood/ young adults Person to person; food and waterborne outbreaks Low Low Young adults Person to person; food and waterborne outbreaks Very low Very low Adults Travelers; outbreaks uncommon Global Patterns of Hepatitis A Virus Transmission
Background image of page 9

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 10
Laboratory Diagnosis Acute infection is diagnosed by the detection of HAV-IgM in serum by EIA. Past Infection i.e. immunity is determined by the detection of HAV-IgG by EIA. Cell culture difficult and take up to 4 weeks, not routinely performed Direct Detection EM, RT-PCR of faeces. Can detect illness earlier than serology but rarely performed.
Background image of page 11

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Many cases occur in community-wide outbreaks no risk factor identified for most cases highest attack rates in 5-14 year olds children serve as reservoir of infection Persons at increased risk of infection travelers homosexual men injecting drug users Hepatitis A Vaccination Strategies Epidemiologic Considerations
Background image of page 12
Pre-exposure
Background image of page 13

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 14
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 55

hepatitis-1 - HepatitisAEViruses AnOverview Viral Hepatitis...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 14. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online