Surveillance - DerekWong WongsVirologyhttp/virologyonline.com Terms Containment to contain the disease as to prevent it from becoming a worse

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    Control of Viral Diseases Derek Wong “Wong’s Virology” http://virology-online.com
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Terms Containment – to contain the disease as to prevent it from becoming a worse problem. Containment is usually the only option available for the majority of infectious diseases. Elimination to eliminate the disease even though the infectious agent may remain e.g. rabies and polio had been eliminated in many countries, and probably SARS in 2003. Eradication – to eradicate the infectious agent altogether worldwide e.g. smallpox
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Epidemiology (Gr.Studies upon people) Study of health and disease as it occurs in the community either in groups of person or the entire population. It deals with Nature of the disease Distribution of the disease Causation of the disease Mode of transfer of the disease Prevention and control of the disease
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    Surveillance of Infectious  Diseases
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Strategies for Surveillance of Infectious Diseases Notifiable diseases – make it a statutory duty for physicians to notify the disease. Virus isolation or serologic evidence reported through diagnostic laboratories Specific Epidemiological Studies e.g. hantavirus, hand foot and mouth disease surveillance
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Notifiable viral diseases (Hong Kong) Yellow fever Poliomyelitis Measles Mumps Rubella Rabies (Human and Animal) Viral Hepatitis Dengue fever Chicken Pox H5N1 influenza SARS
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Requirements for surveillance based on clinical case Occurrence of clinical illness Sufficient severity to seek medical care Availability of medical care Capability of physicians to diagnose illness Laboratory support of diagnosis Reporting of disease to Health Department Collection and analysis of data by Health Department
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Laboratory based surveillance Scientific source of information Coherent and consistent information on trends of  infection Qualitative detail information
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    Control Measures Available
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Control Measures Available To control the spread of the disease in the population by Agent - removing the source of the agent by targeting its reservoir Controlling its transmission Patient – immunization, prophylaxis, antiviral therapy.
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Removing the Source Every pathogen has a reservoir, which may be in humans, animals or both. One may aim to remove the pathogen from the reservoir, or remove the reservoir completely. Human Reservoir Isolating the patient Curing the patient completely Preventing infection in susceptible individuals by vaccination Animal Reservoir Isolating/observing the animal e.g. rabid dog Eradicate the animals involved e.g. slaughter of rabid dog, vector control Vaccinating the animals e.g. vaccination of dogs and foxes. It is very difficult to vaccinate wild animals.
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Controlling its transmission Prophylactic chemotherapy or vaccination among individuals exposed to or susceptible to infection. Contact tracing
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This note was uploaded on 12/27/2011 for the course STEP 1 taught by Professor Dr.aslam during the Fall '11 term at Montgomery College.

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Surveillance - DerekWong WongsVirologyhttp/virologyonline.com Terms Containment to contain the disease as to prevent it from becoming a worse

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