Week1_power_society

Week1_power_society - Introduction
to
Sociology
...

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Unformatted text preview: Introduction
to
Sociology
 Week
1
   Human
society
has
always
been
stratified
   True
200
   False
20
   Power
is
held
by
individuals
   True
125
   False

250
 •  To
understand
what’s
possible,
what
to
 expect
 •  Fundamental
test
of
social
science
   The
study
of
power
poses
epistemological
 and
ontological
questions
(epistemology:
 nature
of
knowledge,
presuppositions,
 foundations,
extent
and
validity;
ontology:
 metaphysics
about
the
nature
of
existence
or
 being)
   Does
society
exist
apart
from
individuals?
   If
so,
how
can
we
know
this
–
e.g.,
are
Mills’
 “series
of
traps”
“real”
   Government
partnership
with
private
capital:
   Troubled
Asset
Relief
Program
(TARP):
$356
 billion,
signed
by
President
Bush
   American
Recovery
and
Reinvestment
Act
 (ARRA):
$787
billion,
signed
by
President
Obama
 I.  II.  III.  IV.  Origins
of
power
in
time
 Migratory
foundation
for
industrial
 globalization
 C.
Wright
Mills’
“sociological
imagination”
 Weber’s
class,
status,
&
politics:
power
&
 stratification
 David
Christian
(2004)
Maps
of

Time:
An
 Introduction
to
Big
History.
Berkeley:
Univ.
of
 California
Press

 Million Kcals/day Can people cooperate around energy use/production? (Kaku 1997) Humans have latent capacity to run (Born to Run, McDougall, 2009) Source: Christian, p.141 Years before present Source: Christian, p.208 Power:
“…the
chance
of
a
(woman/)man
or
a
 number
of
(women/)men
to
realize
their
own
 will
in
a
communal
action
even
against
the
 resistance
of
others…”
(Weber)
 Ahistorical
definition
–
compare
power
50,000
 years
before
present
to
now
   People
concerned
with
basic
survival
   No
private
property
   People
lived
in
small
cooperative
groups
(see
 Roy
reading)
   Group
marriage
predominated
 Source: “Mystery Sand Mosaic” http://www.iconsofthedesert.com   Connect
biography
to
history
   Distinguish
social
issues
versus
personal
 problems
(e.g.,
unemployment)
   Examples:
music,
ethnicity,
family
stories,
 popular
culture
(the
“Wire”)
 “capitalism
is
shown
up
as
the
only
one
way
to
 make
society
into
an
industrial
 apparatus”
(Mills)
 4000
 3500
 3000
 2500
 China
 2000
 Japan
 1500
 USA
 Russia/USSR
 1000
 500
 0
 1750
 1800
 1860
 1900
 1953
 Source: Christian, p.407 1980
 “The
history
that
now
affects
every
(woman
&)
 man
is
world
history”
(Mills)

   Mills’
three
criteria
for
classifying
societies:
   What
is
overall
social
structure?
   Where
does
society
stand
in
human
history?
   What
types
of
people
“prevail”
in
society?
         Social
stratification:
how
society
distributes
its
 highly
valued
rewards,
e.g.
money,
property,
status,
 and
authority.
 No
economic
surplus
before
agriculture,
hence
no
 stratification
before
agriculture
(primitive
equality)
 Social
science
focuses
on
modern
era
stratification
 Social
class
that
owns/controls
wealth
(economic
 surplus)
has
power
(leverage)
over
rest
of
society
 (“freedom
to
invest”
in
“free
markets”)
(cf.
Weber’s
 market
theory
&
property)
       Action
around
“class
interest”
depends
upon
 “transparency”
regarding
cause
of
class
 interest,
or
how
that
class
is
understood
by
 people
 “price
of
labor”
is
“central”
issue
within
 industrial
societies
 Class
segregated
clubs
in
Germany,
versus
 democratic
clubs
in
U.S.
reflect
national
 differences
in
status
configuration
(Weber’s
 neglect
of
race)
   Parties
strive
to
dominate
society,
and
are
 often
organized
hierarchically
   Parties
may
represent
status
groups
or
social
 classes,
or
other
types
of
groups
(religious
 affiliations,
social
currents,
e.g.,
the
“Tea
 Party”)
 •  •  Power:
(1)
the
ability
to
realize
will
in
the
face
 of
resistance
 (2)
Three
interrelated
sources
of
power
within
 stratification
order:
 •  Social
class:
property
ownership
 •  Social
status:
consumption
of
goods/services
 •  Politics:
political
community
 •  Social
class
segmented
by
market
conditions
 •  All
three
affected
by
legal
system
   Theory
is
multi‐dimensional
because
 stratification
order
is
multi‐dimensional
   One
source
of
power
can
substitute
for
 another
source
–
e.g.,
the
“parvenu”

and
 Mohamed
Abdel
Moneim
Al‐Fayed
and
the
 British
Royal
family
 






I
was
born
on
the
other
side
of
town

 Everybody
over
here
just
puts
me
down

 I
never
thought
about
it
much,
til
the
first
time
I
saw
you

 Uh‐oh,
what's
a
poor
boy
gonna
do

 It's
bad
enough
to
love
you
from
afar

 Me
down
here
and
you
up
where
you
are

 If
you
hadn't
given
me
that
look,
that's
all
it
took
it's
true

 U‐oh,
what's
a
poor
boy
gonna
do

 Baby
what's
a
poor
boy
got,
not
a
heck
of
a
lot

 Just
a
heart
that's
true

 One
thing
he
sure
doesn't
need
is
a
heart
that
bleeds

 And
these
lovesick
blues

 I
know
a
poor
boy
can't
go
far

 Baby,
maybe
someday
drive
your
car

 I
can
look
in
my
rearview,
into
those
eyes
of
blue

 Uh‐oh
what's
a
poor
boy
gonna
do

 ...
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