Week4_Power_history - Week
4,
Fall,
2011
...

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Unformatted text preview: Week
4,
Fall,
2011
 Dsoc
1101
 PRELIMINARY
EXAM
ONE

TUESDAY
 OCTOBER
18,
(IN
CLASS)

 Industrialization
is
defined
by
 a.  Growth
of
industry,
especially
manufacturing
2
 b.  A
power
relationship
between
social
classes
0
 c.  The
transfer
of
resources
from
agriculture
to
 industry

200
 d.  technological
change
0
 Post‐industrial
development
is
defined
by
 a.  The
power
of
the
service
industry
1
 b.  The
power
of
social
media

0
 c.  A
shift
from
economic
to
political
power
15
 d.  Rising
economic
inequality
100
 Marx,
Karl.
1974.
Capital:
A
Critique
of
Political
 Economy,
Volume
1.
New
York:
Progress
 Publishers.
 Morton,
A.L.
2008.
A
People’s
History
of
 England.
New
York:
International
Publishers
 1  2  3  4  Two
competing
definitions
of
 industrialization
 The
economic
character
of
industrial
power
 The
industrialization
of
central
Appalachia
 The
political
character
of
post‐industrial
 power
 Million
Kcals/day
 Source:
Christian,
p.141
 Years
before
present
 “In
the
capitalist
West,
industrialization
was
a
 byproduct
of
rising
agricultural
productivity.
As
 output
per
farm
increased,
fewer
farmers
were
 needed
to
feed
the
population.
Those
no
longer
 needed
in
agriculture
moved
to
cities
and
 became
industrial
workers”
(Caplan,
2009)
   Individualist
perspective
–
industrialization
is
 “rational
choice”
in
context
of
rising
productivity
 (no
mention
of
social
class
power)
   Industrialization
is
a
qualitative
and
historical
 transformation
of
social
class
relationships
 where
an
industrial
class
gains
ownership
&
 control
over
the
means
of
production,
versus
a
 working
class
that
losses
ownership
of
the
 means
of
production,
and
must
work
for
the
 industrialists
   Class
power
perspective:
qualitative
(change
in
 kind)
not
change
in
“degree”
(quantitative);
 historical
–
occurred
within
specific
historical
 context
(social
class,
technological,

&
global)
   1  2  Industrial/financial
class
gains
control
over
 means
of
production,
and
working
class
 created
out
of
existing
classes
 Socialist
state
gains
control
over
economy,
 and
working
class
created
out
of
existing
 classes
 Industrialization
preceded
by
centuries
of
 agricultural
commercialization
in
Europe,
 especially
in
England
   Agricultural
commercialization
linked
to
slave
 trade
   James
Watt’s
improved
steam
engine
harnessed
 to
handicraft
industries
“too
productive”
for
 feudalism;
it
was
a
qualitative
economic
change
   Industries
that
developed
during
1790s
in
Britain
 and
1830s
in
U.S.
required
global
markets
   Social
revolutions/war
fought
between
rural
 feudal
interests
&
rising
capitalists
     Indigenous
population
mostly
white,
 independent
farmers
   Industrial
capital
originated
in
England
&
 U.S.,
attracted
by
coal
reserves
&
cheap
labor
   First
move
by
industrialists
to
establish
their
 power:
purchase
much
of
the
land
to:

   gain
control
over
coal
reserves
   limit
farming
as
option
for
labor
 The
Mountain

 (Steve
Earle)

 I
was
born
on
this
mountain
a
long
time
ago

 Before
they
knocked
down
the
timber
and
strip‐mined
the
coal

 When
you
rose
in
the
mornin'
before
it
was
light

 To
go
down
in
that
dark
hole
and
come
back
up
at
night

 (chorus)
I
was
born
on
this
mountain,
this
mountain's
my
home

 She
holds
me
and
keeps
me
from
worry
and
woe

 Well,
they
took
everything
that
she
gave,
now
they're
gone

 But
I'll
die
on
this
mountain,
this
mountain's
my
home

 I
was
young
on
this
mountain
but
now
I
am
old

 And
I
knew
every
holler,
every
cool
swimmin'
hole

 ‘Til
one
night
I
lay
down
and
woke
up
to
find

 That
my
childhood
was
over
and
I
went
down
in
the
mine

 There's
a
hole
in
this
mountain
and
it's
dark
and
it's
deep

 And
God
only
knows
all
the
secrets
it
keeps

 There's
a
chill
in
the
air
only
miners
can
feel

 There're
ghosts
in
the
tunnels
that
the
company
sealed

 "Farewell,
then,
Age
of
Iron;
all
hail,

 King
Steel.."
Andrew
Carnegie
(1901)
 Source:
Meyer,
2005
     1st
dimension:
elected
political
leadership
allied
with
coal
 company
 3rd
dimension,
“engineering
of
consent”
   Ideology
of
industrial
progress
versus
“hillbilly”
backwardness
   Coal
companies
stand
for
community
progress
   No
public
dialogue
about
taxing
mineral
wealth
(“nonissue”)
   2nd
dimension,
“mobilization
of
bias”
   Miners’
union
violently
&
nonviolently
repressed
   Coal
companies
own
the
land,
limiting
agricultural
 opportunities
   Wealthy
have
resources
&
time
to
engage
in
politics;
poor
&
 miners
have
fewer
resources
&
time
 25
 20
 15
 Employment
(hundreds)
 10
 Production
(hundreds
of
 thousands
of
tons)
 5
 0
 1950
 1960
 1970
 1972
 Source:
Gaventa,
p.126
 Technological
revolution
resulting
from
labor
 replacing
technology;
“digital
revolution”
 incompatible
with
capitalism
   Global
production
&
exchange,
universal
 dependency
   Increasing
economic
(class)
inequality
leading
to
 economic
displacement
(grusky)
   Political
connections
of
financial
elite
intact,
 however
economic
displacement
weakens
elite
 economic
power,
opening
way
for
popular
power
 to
contend
   Source: RH Topel, 1997 Source:
Atkinson,
Picketty,
&
Saez,
2011;
cf.
Reckless
Endangerment
(2011)
by
Mortonson
&
R0ssner.
 Elements
 Power
 Industrial
 1)
Global
exchange,
2)
 Power
embedded
within
 commercialized
class
relations,
3)
 stratification
order
(Weber)
 revolutionary
productivity
increases
 due
to
mechanical
technological
 revolution
 Post‐industrial
 1)
Global
production
&
exchange,
2)
 Power
embedded
within
 revolutionary
productivity
increases
 political
order
(Hirschl)
 due
to
labor‐replacing
“smart”
 technological
revolution,
3)
rising
 economic
inequality
&
economic
 displacement
 ...
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