Week6_7_dialectical_social_science

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Unformatted text preview: Weeks
6
&
7,
Fall
2011
 Dsoc
1101
 We
are
here
 
 http://www.povertyinitiative.org/uts
 In
May
2003,
students
and
community
leaders
 proposed
a
new
program,
the
goal
of
which
is
 to
eliminate
poverty,
to
Union’s
President
 Joseph
Hough.
Since
then,
students
and
 community
leaders
have
been
working
with
 Union
trustees,
administration,
including
new
 President
Serene
Jones,
faculty,
and
alumni
 to
build
the
“Poverty
Initiative.”
 According
to
Levins
and
Lewontin,
equilibrium
 in
natural
systems
 a.  Is
highly
unlikely
 b.  Is
likely
 c.  Results
from
contradictory
forces
 d.  Results
from
harmonious
forces
 Beth
Gonzalez
presents
dialectics
as
an
 analytical
framework
 a.  That
can
used
to
predict
the
future
 b.  That
identifies
on
how
society
progresses
 through
stages
of
development
 c.  For
achieving
social
equality
 d.  For
moderating
economic
inequality
 1.  2.  3.  4.  Why
dialectics?
 Origins
of
dialectical
thinking
 Principles
of
dialectical
analysis
 Application
of
dialectics
to
post‐industrial
 capitalism
(Gonzalez)
   Best
science
to
analyze
change
   Social
world
currently
undergoing
radical
 change
   Need
for
intelligent
human
intervention
 (Gonzalez;
Levins
&
Lewontin)
   Critical
perspective
on
mainstream
science
   “Cartesian
reductionism”
(molecular
biology)
   Economic
science
(ahistoric
individualism)
   Classical
Greece:
Heraclitus,
Socrates,
&
Plato
   Style
of
argumentation
intended
to
achieve
 deeper
meaning,
or
“relative
truth”
   Synthesizing
best
elements
to
arrive
at
“relative
 truth”
   Heraclitus:
“a
man
never
steps
in
same
river
 twice”
(river
is
dynamic
system,
not
a
“thing”)
   Hegel:
continental
philosophy
   Marx
&
Engels:
historical
&
dialectical
 materialism
 "The
first
men
who
separated
themselves
from
the
animal
kingdom
were
in
 all
essentials
as
unfree
as
the
animals
themselves,
but
each
step
forward
 in
civilization
was
a
step
towards
freedom....
For
the
generation
of
fire
by
 friction
for
the
first
time
gave
man
command
over
one
of
the
forces
of
 nature,
and
thus
separated
him
forever
from
the
animal
kingdom.
The
 steam‐engine
will
never
bring
about
such
a
mighty
leap
forward
in
 human
development,
however
important
it
may
seem
in
our
eyes
as
 representing
all
those
immense
productive
forces
dependent
on
it,
forces
 which
alone
make
possible
a
state
of
society
in
which
there
are
no
longer
 class
distinctions
or
anxiety
over
the
means
of
subsistence
for
the
 individual,
and
in
which
for
the
first
time
there
can
be
talk
of
real
human
 freedom,
of
an
existence
in
harmony
with
the
known
laws
of
nature.
But
 the
simple
fact
that
all
past
history
can
be
characterized
as
the
history
of
 the
epoch
from
the
practical
discovery
of
the
transformation
of
 mechanical
motion
into
heat
up
to
that
of
the
transformation
of
heat
into
 mechanical
motion
shows
how
young
the
whole
of
human
history
still
is,
 and
how
ridiculous
it
would
be
to
attempt
to
ascribe
any
absolute
validity
 to
our
present
views."

(Engels,
Anti‐Duhring)
 “It
was
Marx
who
had
first
discovered
the
great
lawof
 motion
of
history,
the
law
according
to
which
all
 historical
struggles,
whether
they
proceed
in
the
 political,
religious,
philosophical
or
some
other
 ideological
domain,
are
in
fact
only
the
more
or
less
 clear
expression
of
struggles
of
social
classes,
and
that
 the
existence
and
thereby
the
collisions,
too,
between
 these
classes
are
in
turn
conditioned
by
the
degree
of
 development
of
their
economic
position,
by
the
mode
 of
their
production
and
of
their
exchange
determined
 by
it.”
(example:
Civil
War/civil
rights)
 Source:
Engels,
Preface
to
the
18th
Brumaire
 1.  2.  3.  4.  5.  Historicity:
matter
&
mind
have
a
natural
 history;
science
has
social
history
 Universal
interconnection:
all
matter
 connected
by
cause
&
effect
 Heterogeneity:
system
outcomes
determined
 by
critical
parts
 Interpenetration
of
opposites:
development
 results
from
struggle
of
opposites
that
 exchange
information
(e.g.
bacterial
immunity)
 Integrative
levels:
eco‐systems
have
integrity
   Commodities
have
two
elements:
use
value
 (must
be
needed/useful),
and
exchange
value
 (monetary
value
proportional
to
labor
inputs)
   Over
time,
capitalists
compete
by
cutting
 costs,
and
this
is
most
effectively
done
by
 reducing
labor
inputs
   At
some
stage,
when
labor
inputs
have
been
 sufficiently
minimized,
capitalism
is
negated
 by
a
system
based
in
production
for
need
 1.  2.  3.  4.  5.  6.  Nature
is
an
integrated
and
connected
whole.
 Phenomena
are
connected
through
causality.
 Nature
is
in
a
state
of
constant
change:
development,
 disintegration,
dying
away
and
arising.
 Internal
contradiction,
the
basis
of
quantitative
 development,
is
inherent
in
all
things.
 Changes
are
from
lower
to
higher
order
and
occur
as
 negations.
 Qualitative
changes
occur
by
a
quantitative
extraction
 from
the
quality,
or
by
quantitative
introduction
of
an
 antagonistic
new
quality.
Qualitative
changes
occur
as
 leaps.
 Quantitative
developments
are
definite
and
 indispensable

   40
years
in
revolutionary
movement,
 currently
a
leader
of
“League
of
 Revolutionaries
for
a
New
America”
   Institute
for
the
Scientific
Study
of
Society,
 www.scienceofsociety.org
   Post‐industrial
capitalism
defined
by
qualitative
 change:
contradiction
replaced
by
antagonism
   Technology
destroying
class
unity
–
(economic
 displacement
&
poverty)
   Resulting
antagonism
moving
society
toward
some
 new
quality
–
perhaps
fascism
or
communism
   Revolutionaries
need
to
educate
&
provide
 analysis
to
achieve
positive
outcome
–
positive
 outcome
will
not
happen
spontaneously
 Suppose
that
economic
inequality
in
the
United
 States
continues
to
increase,
what
will
the
 social
result
become?
In
your
discussion
try
to
 apply
theory
from
one
or
more
of
the
 following:
Weber,
Gaventa,
or
dialectics.
 ...
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