Core Concepts Cumulative - Core
Concepts
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Unformatted text preview: Core
Concepts
 DSoc
1101
 Fall,
2011
 
 Week
1
 
 Sociological
imagination:
1)
connects
biography
to
history,
and
2)
distinguish
social
issues
 versus
personal
problems.
 
 Social
stratification:
how
society
distributes
its
highly
valued
resources.
 
 Power:
the
ability
to
realize
will
in
the
face
of
resistance.
 
 Economic
surplus
is
the
material
foundation,
and
precondition
for,
modern
day
social
 power.

 
 Weber’s
2‐part
theory
of
power:
1)
realizing
will
in
the
face
of
opposition,
and
2)
 embedded
within
the
stratification
order
comprised
of
social
class,
social
status,
and
 politics.
 
 
 Week
2
 
 Gaventa’s
three
dimensions
of
power:
1)
outcomes
of
observable
contests,
2)
the
 mobilization
of
bias
in
the
determination
of
rules
governing
the
allocation
of
resources,
and
 3)
the
ability
of
the
dominant
class
to
manipulate
the
consciousness
of
the
dominated
 classes
(ideology,
hopes,
aspirations,
and
the
like).
 
 Methodology:
a
system
of
methods,
principles,
and
rules
regulating
a
given
discipline.
 
 Counterfactual:
expresses
what
has
not
happened
but
could,
would,
or
might
under
 differing
conditions.
Counterfactuals
are
used
in
research
as
evidence
in
support
of
a
 theoretical
proposition.
 
 Weeks
3
&
4
 
 2
definitions
of
industrialization

 
 1.
 economic
science:
productivity
increases
within
agriculture
that
transfers
resources
 to
expanding
industry
and
urban
services.
 
 2.
 social
science:
a)
an
unequal
power
relationship
where
a
working
class
must
sell
its
 labor
for
wages
paid
by

a
capitalist
class
who
own
the
means
of
production,
b)
a
socialist
 state
that
uses
its
power
to
create
a
growing
class
of
wage
workers
while
transferring
 resources
from
agriculture
to
industry.
 
 
 1
 Social
preconditions
for
industrial
revolution:
global
markets,
technological
revolution
 (steam
engine),
and
social
class
power
of
the
industrial
class
that
gains
ownership
of
the
 means
of
production,
thereby
gaining
power
over
a
class
of
workers
who
must
work
for
a
 living.
 
 Character
of
industrialization
within
Appalachia:
industrialists
established
power
over
 the
local
population
by
purchasing
land
and
mineral
resources,
thereby
limiting
farming
as
 a
livelihood
option,
and
creating
a
working
class;
the
capital
came
from
England
&
US.
 
 1st
dimension
of
power
in
Appalachia:
electing
officials
disproportionately
friendly
to
 coal
interests
 
 2nd
dimension
of
power
in
Appalachia:
union
repression;
wealthy
have
relatively
more
 time
&
resources
to
engage
in
politics.
 
 3rd
dimension
of
power
in
Appalachia:
ideology
of
progress
versus
native
regional
 backwardness;
energy
companies
symbolize
progress;
people
appear
to
be
fine
with
no
 public
dialogue
about
taxing
mineral
wealth.
 
 Post­industrial
development:
development
characterized
by
increasing
economic
 inequality
and
economic
displacement
(e.g.,
structural
unemployment,
poverty,
and
 homelessness),
technological
revolution
related
to
labor‐replacing
technology,
global
 production
and
exchange,
global
labor
markets,
and
transition
of
power
relations
from
 economic
to
political.
 
 Week
5
 
 Idealism:
knowledge
where
the
object
of
external
perception
consists
of
ideas.
 
 Economic
theory
of
capitalism:
1)
Individual:
self‐interested,
rational
 2)
Capitalism:
economy
where
individuals
free
to
invest/exchange,
and
wealth
is
privately
 owned
 
 Adam
Smith’s
theory
of
the
market:
that
markets
transform
bad
into
good
by
utilizing
the
 natural
self‐interest,
greed,
and
rapacity
of
individuals.
This
theory
is
modeled
after
a
 bastardized
Stoic
deity
that
turns
bad
into
good.
 
 Methodological
individualism:
that
knowledge
about
the
social
&
economic
world
is
 derived
from
knowledge
about
individual
behavior.

 
 Protestant
ethic:

An
ascetic
belief
system
associated
with
Protestantism
that
views
the
 accumulation
of
profit
as
a
sign
of
God’s
pleasure
in
hard
work,
frugality,
and
righteous
 living
 
 Calvinist
theology:
Moral
bifurcation
of
society
and
doctrine
of
predestination
where
few
 are
chosen
for
eternal
salvation;
most
are
damned
to
afterlife
in
Hell.
 
 2
 
 Epistemology:
nature
of
knowledge,
presuppositions,
foundations,
extent
and
validity
 
 Methodology:
a
system
of
methods,
principles,
and
rules
regulating
a
given
discipline
 
 Ontology:
metaphysics
about
the
nature
of
existence
or
being
 
 
 Week
6
 
 1.


 Social
science
dialectics
is
an
analytical
framework
for
analyzing
stages
of
 development
in
society
 
 • change
from
one
type
of
society
to
another
occurs
as
negation
 • dialectics
originated
as
a
form
of
debate/discussion
in
ancient
Greece,
a
dialogue
 that
culminates
in
synthesis
reflecting
more
accurate
knowledge
compared
to
the
 individual
arguments
taken
separately
 • Marx
and
Engels
developed
historical
dialectics
to
explain
how
society
develops
 across
history
 • Lewontin
&
Levins
apply
dialectics
to
comprehend
material
development
in
nature
 • dialectics
is
a
method
for
critiquing
other
scientific
approaches
 
 
 2.
 Marx
&
Engel's
theory
of
capital
contends
that
capitalist
competition
leads
to
 substitution
of
capital
for
labor,
and
this
ultimately
creates
the
historical
conditions
for
the
 negation
of
capitalism
by
a
society
that
produces
not
on
the
basis
of
profit,
but
according
to
 human
need.
 
 3.
 Beth
Gonzalez
builds
upon
Marx
&
Engel's
theory
of
capital
by
contending
that
the
 introduction
of
labor
replacing
("smart")
technology
disrupted
capitalism,
and
is
gradually
 creating
the
conditions
for
the
negation
of
capitalism
by
some
new
type
of
society.
 
 
 Week
7
 
 George
Herbert
Mead’s
theory
of
the
self
&
generalized
other:
fully
developed
self
is
 defined
in
relation
to
a
community,
of
not
just
of
individuals,
but
also
of
social
types
 (including
gender
types)
 
 race:
historically
evolved,
subordinate
moral
category
assigned
to
individuals
on
the
basis
 of
a
physical
characteristic.

 
 DuBois'
theory
of
double­consciousness:
that
African
Americans
have
two
selves,
1)
how
 whites
view
them
versus
2)
how
they
view
themselves
more
generally.
 
 
 3
 Segregation:
The
policy
or
practice
of
separating
people
of
different
races,
classes,
or
 ethnic
groups,
as
in
schools,
housing,
and
public
or
commercial
facilities,
especially
as
a
 form
of
discrimination.
 
 Race
hierarchy
is
the
economic
foundation
for
industrial
capitalism
and
related
class
 hierarchy
in
the
United
States:
profits
from
slavery
stimulated
capitalist
industry
 (Douglas
North).
 
 Group
differences
in
achievement
scores
are
generally
the
result
environmental
 differences
in
group
experiences,
e.g.,
race
differences
in
general
intelligence.
 
 Week
8
 
 Gender:
social
categories
associated
with
human
sexual
dimorphism
 
 George
Herbert
Mead’s
theory
of
the
self
&
generalized
other:
fully
developed
self
is
 defined
in
relation
to
a
community,
of
not
just
of
individuals,
but
also
of
social
types
 (including
gender
types)
 
 social
being
determines
social
consciousness:
individual
consciousness
conforms
to
the
 exigencies
of
how
the
society
produces
its
material
culture.
Material
culture
is
the
level
of
 technology
and
the
system
of
property
ownership
used
to
produce
food,
clothing,
shelter,
 education,
entertainment,
etc.

 
 family:
A
small
kinship‐structured
group
with
the
key
function
of
nurturing
socialization
of
 the
newborn
 
 marriage:
A
formal
commitment
between
a
couple
to
maintain
a
long‐term
relationship
 involving
specific
rights
and
duties
toward
one
another
and
toward
their
children
 
 Social class: groups that share common positions in the stratification order based upon ownership, control and market relationships (e.g., owners of capital, simple labor power, marketable skills, or market power) The
American
dream:
the
ideology
of
equality
where
everyone,
regardless
of
social
 origins,
has
a
chance
to
succeed
economically.
This
perspective
is
defined
by
equality
of
 opportunity,
not
equality
of
outcome,
and
is
therefore
compatible
with
strong
anti‐social
 democratic
sentiments
and
policies.
 
 
 Religion
&
society
 
 “A
religion
is
a
unified
system
of
beliefs
and
practices
relative
to
sacred
things…beliefs
and
 practices
which
unite
into
one
single
moral
community
called
a
Church,
all
those
who
 adhere
to
them”
(Durkheim)
 Two
part
definition:
a)
functional
(social
integration),
and
b)
substantive
(sacred)
 
 4
 
 Religious
fundamentalism:

a
social
movement
based
in
the
displaced
middle
class
that
 conceives
of
restoring
an
idealized
past
consistent
with
some
interpretation
of
sacred
text.
 
 Stages
of
religious
identification:
ascribed
(at
birth
usually),
chosen,
&
declared
(see
Lori
 Peek)
 
 
 Health
&
Society
 
 life expectancy: the mathematical expectation of life for an individual at some age, given the existing risk of death in the society at that time. Life expectancy is computed using a life table. How social position affects health: although the causal pathways are not well understood, there is a strong dependency between the individual's position in the social status hierarchy (e.g., the social class hierarchy and the race hierarchy) and health/life expectancy. New Class Society Perrucci
&
Wysong’s
definition
of
social
class:

class
is
determined
by
access
to
four
types
of
 capital:
consumption
capital,
investment
capital,
skill
capital,
&
social
capital.
 
 Historical
precedent
of
New
Class
Society
is
the
Post­Civil
War
regime
in
the
South:
 
 1)
inequality
within
the
South
after
civil
war
is
similar
to
modern
day
class
inequality
insofar
as
 each
are
based
upon
unequal
relations
with
property:
freed
slaves
&
poor
whites
excluded
 from
land
ownership
in
the
South,
new
working
class
is
excluded
from
owning
capital,
and
lives
 paycheck
to
paycheck,
or
worse;
 
 2)
freed
slaves
attended
schools
of
designed
for
second‐class
citizenship
&
semi‐skilled
labor;
 new
working
class
attends
second‐class
schools
designed
for
second‐class
citizenship;
 
 3)
freed
slaves
excluded
from
political
participation
by
Jim
Crow
restrictions;
new
working
 class
excluded
by
from
political
influence
by
virtue
of
its
poverty
&
lack
of
money;
 
 Perrucci
&
Wysong's
thesis:
class
polarization
is
reshaping
society
&
individual
life
chances,
 and
has
created
a
double‐diamond
class
structure
reflecting
a
20/80
ruling
class/working
class
 divide.
 
 Political
influence
of
the
superclass
is
reflected
in
magnitude
of
government
lobbying
 expenditures.
 
 Political
power
of
the
superclass
is
not
located
within
its
relationship
to
government,
but
rather
 is
embedded
within
the
golden
triangle
of
power
defined
by
interconnections
between
 government,
the
information
industry,
and
corporate
foundations/think
tanks.
 
 
 5
 ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/21/2011 for the course DSOC 1101 taught by Professor Hirshel during the Fall '07 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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