Gender_11_ver_1 - Why
did
former
Harvard
University
President
 Larry
Summers
state
that
men
are
better


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Unformatted text preview: Why
did
former
Harvard
University
President
 Larry
Summers
state
that
men
are
better
 scientists
than
women
 a)  Because
he’s
poorly
informed
 b)  Because
he
is
a
methodological
individualist
 c)  Because
he
is
biased
 d)  Because
he
is
in
a
male
dominated
profession
 1.  2.  3.  4.  Introduction
&
definitions
 Is
gender
biologically
determined,
or
 biologically
related?
 Sex,
the
brain,
and
behavior
 Marriage
&
principles
of
gender
stratification
   Gender
does
not
exist,
except
   As
an
individual
preference
   Biological
status
   Family
division
of
labor
   Gender
exists
as
a
social
category
in
relation
 to
society
   Historical
materialism:
social
being
 determines
social
consciousness
(how
 people
live
shapes
their
ideas
about
the
world
 as
they
know
it,
e.g.
Gaventa’s
theory
of
 power)
   Gender
is
defined
by
social
relationships:

 occupation,
property,
and
family
   Fundamental
social
category

   hunter/gathers
mostly
gender
equal,
class
 divided
civilizations
tend
to
be
male
 dominated
   Gender
links
to
“social
being
determines
 social
consciousness”
&
sociological
 imagination
   Gender:
social
categories
associated
with
 sexual
dimorphism
   George
Herbert
Mead’s
theory
of
the
self
&
 generalized
other:
fully
developed
self
is
 defined
in
relation
to
a
community,
of
not
just
 of
individuals,
but
of
social
types
(including
 gender
types)
   Family:
A
small
kinship‐structured
group
with
 the
key
function
of
nurturing
socialization
of
 the
newborn
   Marriage:
A
formal
commitment
between
a
 couple
to
maintain
a
long‐term
relationship
 involving
specific
rights
and
duties
toward
 one
another
and
toward
their
children
 Julius Caesar on the Britons: "by tens and twelves they possessed their wives in common; and it was mostly brothers with brothers and parents with children” (Engels, 1970, p.219) Million
Kcals/day
consumed
by
society
 1,800,000
 1,600,000
 1,400,000
 1,200,000
 1,000,000
 800,000
 600,000
 400,000
 200,000
 0
 Electronic
revolution
 Origins
in
agriculture:
Men
 gained
dominance
over
women
 &
over
society
 Industrial
revolution
 200,000
 Source:
Christian,
p.141
 100,000
 10,000
 1,000
 150
 Years
before
present
 0
   Social
stratification:
how
society
distributes
 its
rewards
   Social
class:
groups
that
share
common
 positions
in
the
stratification
order
based
 upon
ownership
and
control
relationships
   Gender
related
to
both
concepts
(see
Hirschl
 paper)
   Gender
stratification
ameliorated
by
family,
 e.g.,
approximately
75%
of
U.S.
men
and
 women
age
25‐60
share
income
in
marriage
   Race
stratification
not
ameliorated
by
family
   Are
men
better
at
high
level
science
jobs?
   Lawrence
Summers,
former
President
of
 Harvard
Univ.,
suggested
that
women
are
 intrinsically
less
capable
than
men
at
science
 (myth
of
male
superiority)


   How
might
this
statement
have
been
 influenced
by
economic
science
&
 methodological
individualism?
 Source: The New Yorker, October 12, 2009, p.80-1, photo by Martin Schoelller   Child
socialization
(Adler
&
Adler,
C27)
   Political
empowerment
–
19th
Amendment
to
 US
Constitution
in
1920
   Occupational
differences,
e.g.
“Rosie
the
 Riveter”
&
aftermath
of
World
War
II
   Stereotypes
   Property
ownership
differences
since
origins
 of
agriculture
   Biological
determinism
is
complex,
and
 involves
feedback
between
organism
and
 environment,
e.g.,
the
fish
model
of
CU
Prof.
 Bass
   For
humans,
society
is
the
environment.


 “Vocalizing" teleost fishes Prof. Andrew H. Bass, CU Dept. of Neurobiology and Behavior: There are two types of males, those that “sing” to attract females, and those who do not, and “two male morphs differ in a large suite of behavioral, neurobiological and neuroendocrine characters including divergent acoustic courtship behaviors and vocal control pathways.”         Prof.
Bass:
“the
brain
determines
behavior,
and
 behavior
determines
the
brain”
 E.g.,
playing
guitar
creates
a
different
brain
than
 watching
television
 Implication:
our
gender‐related
behaviors
construct
 our
brain,
and
vice‐versa
 Dialectical
interaction:
individuals
create
society,
 society
creates
individuals;
society
is
complex,
social
 change
nonlinear
 Source: Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2004-5, Tables 569 & 589. Source: Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2004-5, Table 573 Source: US Bureau of the Census, March, 2002 CPS Source: Rank & Hirschl, 2001 A.  B.  C.  Rates
of
college
matriculation
are
now
 higher
for
women
than
for
men

 Boys
are
socialized
to
be
more
competitive,
 girls
to
be
more
socially
cooperative
 How
can
“a”
be
reconciled
with
“b”?
         Since
Ben
Franklin,
marriage
viewed
as
integral
to
 American
dream
 Financial
advisors:
get
married,
stay
married
 Marriage:
vehicle
for
moral
&
financial
goals
(social
 being

social
consciousness)
 Marriage
obliges
partners
to
share
wealth
&
income
       America
established
by
Calvinists
where
individual
 wealth
regarded
as
a
sign
of
moral
worthiness
 before
God
 Moral
bifurcation
of
society
via
Calvinist
doctrine
of
 predestination:

the
chosen
few
(mostly
wealthy
 individuals),
and
the
unworthy
(some
wealthy
&
 most
poor)
 To
what
extent
is
popular
morality
within
U.S.
 influenced
by/related
to
Calvinism?
   Rags
to
riches:

everyone
who
plays
by
the
 rules
has
a
chance
to
make
it
   Wealth
is
a
sign
of
moral
worth
and
success
   Poverty
signifies
moral
failure
         Some
Americans
care
more
about
their
own
money
 than
other
people
–
market
based
morality
 Some
Americans
believe
the
rich
and
famous
are
 morally
superior
to
the
average
person
 Many
Americans
believe
they
will
“make
it”
some
 day
(become
affluent/wealthy)
 Wealth
&
income
legally
shared
within
marriage
 Source: Hirschl et al., 2003, “Does Marriage Increase Affluence?” Journal of Marriage & Family 65:927-938         White
men
have
favorable
odds
of
becoming
 affluent
inside
or
outside
marriage
 White
women
have
poor
odds
of
becoming
affluent
 outside
of
marriage
 African
Americans
have
poor
odds
of
achieving
 affluence
inside
or
outside
marriage
 White
women
benefit
financially
from
marriage
         Gender
is
socially
determined,
biologically
related
 In
social
stratification
outcomes,
gender
intersects
 with
race
&
social
class;
gender
stratification
 ameliorated
by
heterosexual
marriage

 Gender:
social
being
determines
social
 consciousness
 Gender
invokes
beliefs
about
masculine
&
feminine
 characteristics,
including
myth
of
male
superiority
 at
high
status/high
paying
jobs
 ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/21/2011 for the course DSOC 1101 taught by Professor Hirshel during the Fall '07 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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