race_and_class_hierarchy_11_ver_2

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Unformatted text preview: Group
differences
between
boys
versus
girls
in
 test
scores
on
cognitive
ability
are
the
result
 of

 a.  gender
linked
genetic
differences
 b.  environmental
differences
in
group
 experiences
 c.  inherited
ability
 d.  ideological
differences
 I.  II.  III.  IV.  V.  Definitions
 Interpretation
of
group
differences
 DuBois
“double‐consciousness”
 Historical
origins
&
development
of

racial
 hierarchy
in
the
US
–
race
is
a
social,
not
a
 personal
phenomenon
 Future
of
race
&
social
class
hierarchies?
       Kozol,
Jonathan.

“Savage
Inequalities,”
Chapter
32
 in
Adler
&
Adler.

 Lacy,
Karyn
R.,
“Black
Spaces,
Black
Places:
 Strategic
Assimilation
and
Identity
Construction
in
 Middle‐Class
Suburbia,”
Chapter
20
in
Adler
&
Adler.
 Katz‐Fishman,
Walda
and
Jerome
Scott.

1998.

“The
 Increasing
Significance
of
Class:
Black‐Jewish
 Conflict
in
the
Postindustrial
Global
Era”
 Social
category
 1830
–
1970
 1970
to
present
 Economic
base
 Industrial
 Post‐industrial
 Social
class
 Capitalist/worker/middle
 class
 Capitalist/worker/ economically
displaced
 Racial
majority
 Upward
mobility
 Class
polarization
 Racial
minorities
 Upward
mobility
 Class
polarization
 Gender
 Increasing
gender
equality
 Class
polarization
 Health
 Improving
life
expectancy
 Health
disparities
   Portes
and
Zhou’s
model
of
“segmented
 assimilation”
   Karyn
Lacy’s
study
of
African
Americans
in

 suburban
Washington,
DC
who
assimilate
in
 black
and
white
suburbs;
majority
of
African
 American’s
reside
in
impoverished
 Southeastern
region
   African‐American
President/high
African‐ American
poverty
rates
 •  •  •  •  Relative
status
of
Jews
&
African‐Americans
 determined
by
how
these
groups
were
 incorporated
into
society/economy
 Israeli
Sephardim
versus
early
American
 Sephardim
 Many
recent
African
immigrants
to
US
are
 professional,
high
income

 In
current
context,
both
Jews
&
African‐ Americans
experiencing
class
polarization
 J.
Robert
Oppenheimer
(1964):
“The
 cybernation
revolution
has
been
brought
 about
by
the
combination
of
the
computer
 and
automated
self‐regulating
machine.
This
 results
in
a
system
of
almost
unlimited
 productive
capacity
which
requires
 progressively
less
human
labor…”
 Ideology
is
the
belief
set
that
shapes
peoples’
 understanding
of
the
world,
connecting
 individual
action
to
social
activity.

 The
ruling
ideology
serves
to
justify
the
 stratification
order,
and
reflects
the
attitude
 of
the
power
elite
(leaders
of
the
most
 influential
economic,
political
&
military
 organizations).
   Race
is
defined
erroneously
by
biological
 traits
   Race
must
be
defined
socially
&
historically

   Change
in
racial
status
results
from
societal
 change,
not
the
other
way
around
   Racial
status
varies
from
society
to
society,
 e.g.,
Venezuela
versus
Brazil,
and
U.S.
versus
 France
&
Britain
 Race
is
a
set
of
historically
evolved,
hierarchical
 categories
assigned
to
individuals
on
the
 basis
of
physical
characteristics.

As
such
race
 is
insidiously
confusing
because
it
appears
to
 reside
within
the
individual,
when
it
actually
 resides
in
society
       African
Americans
have
two
selves,
1)
how
whites
 view
them
versus
2)
how
they
view
themselves
 more
generally
(referenced
in
essay
on
black
 suburbs
by
Karyn
Lacy)
 Dubois’
concept
is
related
to
George
Herbert
 Mead’s
theory
of
the
generalized
other:
that
the
 fully
developed
self
is
defined
in
relation
to
a
 community
of
people,
and
this
is
composed
not
just
 of
individuals,
but
of
individual
types
 Mead’s
concept
is
based
in
evidence
about
how
 children
acquire
language,
and
how
adults
mature
 intellectually
 “…(T)he
language
process
is
essential
for
 development
of
the
self.
The
self
has
a
 character
which
is
different
from
that
of
the
 physiological
organism
proper.
The
self
is
 something
which
has
a
development;
it
is
not
 initially
there,
at
birth,
but
arises
in
the
 process
of
social
experience
and
activity…”
 Source: Mind, Self and Society from the Standpoint of a Social Behaviorist (1962)           The
Bell
Curve
(1994),
by
R.
Herrnstein
and
C.
 Murray
 Intelligence
is
measured
by
IQ,
and
is
immutable
and
 inherited
 Low
IQ
predicts
criminality,
out‐of‐wedlock
birth,
 and
substance
abuse
 Racial
differences
in
IQ
(group
differences,
NOT
 individual
differences)
 Charles
Murray’s
political
agenda:

eliminate
gov’t
 funding
for
education
         Education
positively
affects
IQ
 Black
and
white
differences
in
IQ
were
eliminated
at
the
 college
level,
yet
persisted
in
high
school
 Racial
differences
in
IQ
result
from
educational
and
social
 inequality,
not
from
racial
genetic
differences
(see
Kozol’s
 essay
on
East
St.
Louis)
 Group
differences
are
usually
environmentally
determined
 Source: “Race and general cognitive ability.” Psychological Science 9(2):March, 1997   Group
differences
based
in
environmental
 factors
(differences
in
school
quality),
not
in
 genetics
   Intelligence
is
like
athletic
ability,
great
 variation,
but
being
“in
shape”
matters
(
“in
 shape”
basis
for
group
difference
in
 intelligence)
 Why
did
former
Harvard
Univ.
Professor
 Richard
Herrnstein
believe
evidence
supports
 white
racial
superiority
in
intelligence?
 Perhaps
because
psychologists
believe
 society=sum
of
individuals,
deny
individuals
 are
socialized
by
“society”
 Source: Marmot, 2004   Native
American
colonial
policy,
African
 American
Slavery,
and
expropriation
of
 Mexican
American
property
   The
ideological
logic
of
racial
hierarchy
is
 white
supremacy,
genocide,
and
slavery,
 directly
counter
to
stated
American
ideals
of
 freedom
and
democracy
 http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1848hidalgo.html “Mexicans now established in territories previously belonging to Mexico, and which remain for the future within the limits of the United States, as defined by the present Treaty, shall be free to continue where they now reside, or to remove at any time to the Mexican Republic, retaining the property which they possess in the said territories” (Article VII).   Mexican
land
tenure
rights
violated
by
local
 courts;
this
varies
from
state
to
state
 (California,
Texas,
New
Mexico,
Arizona,
 Colorado)
   Mexican
Americans
became
a
racial
group
by
 virtue
of
being
dispossessed
of
their
property
   This
racial
status
continues,
with
local
 variation
   Social
order
of
American
society
is
not
fully
 spelled
out
in
legal/political
documents
   Rather,
it
must
be
discerned
by
analysis
that
 accounts
for
social
relationships
     “We
hold
these
truths
to
be
self‐evident,
that
all
men
are
 created
equal,
that
they
are
endowed
by
their
Creator
with
 certain
unalienable
Rights,
that
among
these
are
Life,
 Liberty
and
the
pursuit
of
Happiness”
(1776,
“Declaration
of
 Independence,”
Thomas
Jefferson)
 “That
those
tribes
can
not
exist
surrounded
by
our
 settlements
and
in
continual
contact
with
our
citizens
is
 certain.
They
have
neither
the
intelligence,
the
industry,
the
 moral
habits,
nor
the
desire
of
improvement
which
are
 essential
to
any
favorable
change
in
their
condition.
 Established
in
the
midst
of
another
and
a
superior
race,
and
 without
appreciating
the
causes
of
their
inferiority
or
seeking
 to
control
them,
they
must
necessarily
yield
to
the
force
of
 circumstances
and
ere
long
disappear.”
President
Andrew
 Jackson,
1833;
“Trail
of
Tears”
death
march
began
in
1838
  Race
hierarchy
morphed
into
plantation
 slavery:
   Fogel
&
Engerman:
Time
on
the
Cross:
the
 Economics
of
American
Negro
Slavery
   Douglas
North:
Economic
Growth
of
U.S,
 1790‐1860
  Race
hierarchy
foundation
for
class
hierarchy
 class
co‐determined
in
history
(compare
to
 Russian
serfdom)
           Quantitatively
small:

never
more
than
6
percent
of
total
 economy
(GDP)
 Qualitatively
significant:
basis
for
regional
development/ division
of
labor
(comparable
to
China’s
export
economy
 today)
 Cotton
planters
specialized
in
export
crop
 West
(Midwest)
furnished
South
with
food
 Northeast
sold
South
imports,
shipping,
insurance,
 capital,
and
manufactured
goods
–
New
York
City
 entrepot
for
South
 International
markets
key
to
development
of
 US
economy
   US
exports
dominated
by
cotton
up
to
1860
   Slaves
were
key
“intermediate
good”
in
 cotton
cultivation
   1802 1860 $600 $1,800 Source: Fogel & Engerman (1974)   Race
hierarchy
in
financial
assets:
Black
 wealth/white
wealth:
a
new
perspective
on
 racial
inequality
(1995),
Melvin
Oliver
and
 Thomas
Shapiro
   Racial
differentials
in
health/survival
 Source: National Center for Health Statistics Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2007, CPR-P60-233 Source: RH Topel, 1997   Race
defined
by
social
hierarchy
   Social
class
defined
by
economic
order
   Both
race
and
class
hierarchies
are
reinforced
 by
ideology,
in
particular
the
“ruling
 ideology,”
and
this
is
related
to
history
and
to
 present
ambitions
   3
origins
of
racial
hierarchy
in
U.S.:

interplay
 of
economic
interests
&
political/legal
 subordination
 The
United
States
is
called
upon
to
be
a
“model
 of
what
is
possible,
a
place
where
people
of
 every
background
and
distinction
can
live
in… the
kind
of
peace
and
harmony
that
God
 meant
for
all
his
children”
 Source: Andrew Bacevich (2002:219) American Empire   Class
hierarchy
sharpening,
leaving
little
 room
for
upward
mobility
   Racial
hierarchy
still
strong
(see
Karyn
Lacy’s
 and
Jon
Kozol’s
essays)
   US
has
elite
minorities,
&
disproportionate
 percentages
of
minorities
in
poverty,
 evidence
for
class
polarization
   Military
related
proportion
of
economy
 expanding,
civilian
proportion
in
decline
 Social
category
 1830
–
1970
 1970
to
present
 Economic
base
 Industrial
 Post‐industrial
 Social
class
 Capitalist/worker/middle
 class
 Capitalist/worker/ economically
displaced
 Racial
majority
 Upward
mobility
 Class
polarization
 Racial
minorities
 Upward
mobility
 Class
polarization
 Gender
 Increasing
gender
equality
 Class
polarization
 Health
 Improving
life
expectancy
 Health
disparities
 ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/21/2011 for the course DSOC 1101 taught by Professor Hirshel during the Fall '07 term at Cornell.

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