Religion_Health

Religion_Health - 1.  2.  3. ...

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Unformatted text preview: 1.  2.  3.  Introduction
and
definitions
 Stages
of
religious
identification
 Religion
&
politics
in
the
US
 In
the
US,
Religious
fundamentalist
voters
are
 mostly:
 a)  White
 b)  Middle
class
 c)  Well
educated
 d)  Poor
 e)  Rural
 f)  Not
well
educated
   Social
being
determines
social
 consciousness
(asocial_ 

bsocial_consciousness):
 religious
institutions
and
practices
reflect
the
 way
society
functions
(e.g.,
Calvinism
&
 American
Dream)
   Categories
of
religion
grounded
in
social
 categories,

and
vice‐versa
   Especially
the
United
States,
thinking
&
 behavior
shaped
by
religious
beliefs
and
 practices
 being Source: World Values Survey, in Chaves (2007)   Power
elite
rulers
often
rely
upon
 “metaphysics”
(or
religion)
to
reinforce
 desired
categories
of
behavior
   Christianity
in
feudal
Europe
is
another
clear
 example
   U.S.
Constitution:
no
religious
test
for
public
 office,
yet;

 •  “In
God
We
Trust”
inscribed
on
U.S.
currency
 •  President
takes
oath
of
office
with
hand
on
the
Bible
 Durkheim,
Emile.
The
Elementary
Forms
of
 Religious
Life
 Thesis:
religion
reflects
social
dependency
of
 individuals,
who
are
socialized
materially
&
 mentally;
individuals
depend
upon
society,
 not
the
other
way
around
   “A
religion
is
a
unified
system
of
beliefs
and
 practices
relative
to
sacred
things…beliefs
 and
practices
which
unite
into
one
single
 moral
community
called
a
Church,
all
those
 who
adhere
to
them”
(Durkheim,
The
 Elementary
Forms
of
Religious
Life,
p.65)
   Two
part
definition:
a)
functional
(social
 integration),
and
b)
substantive
(sacred)
   Ascribed,
chosen
&
declared
   These
stages
determined
by
personal
&
social
 processes
   Kramnick
&
Moore
(2005)
The
godless
 constitution;

how
a
secular
government
was
 created
amidst
religious
debate
       According
to
Perrucci
&
Wysong,
&
Moyers,
in
the
 United
States,
voting
has
become
a
symbolic
“show
 about
nothing”
where
power
is
vested
in
campaign
 finance
 Social
insecurity
not
addressed:
1)
weakened
job
 security,
2)
health
care,
3)
income
volatility,
4)
 frayed
safety
next,
5)
stagnated
men’s
earnings,
and
 6)
wealth
inequality
 Voting
offers
a
window
for
analysis
of
“social
 influences”
   Martin
Riesebrodt,
(1993)
Pious
Passion:
The
 Emergence
of
Modern
Fundamentalism
in
the
 United
States
and
Iran
   Fundamentalism
defined:
restoration
of
 idealized
past
through
sacred
text
 interpretation;
   restore
patriarchal
family

   middle
class
   Manifest
Republican
Party/Tea
Party
   African
Americans
most
biblical
literalist,
but
 not
“fundamentalist”
   For
African
American
voters,
experience
of
 race
shapes
religious
beliefs
&
political
 partisanship
   Fundamentalists
are
white,
middle
class,
&
 dedicated
to
restoring
patriarchal
family
   To
see
if
“society”
matters
   To
understand
relationship
between
 individual
&
society
 1.  2.  3.  4.  Social
being
&
health
 Medical
model
versus
social
model
 Preventive
medicine:
health
via
social
reform
 Speculation
upon
the
biosocial
pathways
 Video clip intro: http://www.unnaturalcauses.org/video_clips_detail.php?res_id=213 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w98GSXBEyQw&feature=related   Individuals
depend
on
society
for
health
   Life
expectancy
incorporates
age
specific
 death
rates
cumulated
over
the
life
course
 into
a
single
measure
(LE=f(1/death
rate),
and
 is
an
excellent
measure
of
population
health
   Social
model:
health
is
a
function
of
the
 social
stratification
order,
and
the
individual’s
 access
to
the
social
determinants
of
health
 (measured
as
group
differences)
   Medical
model:
Health
is
a
function
of
host
 resistance,
disease
vector,
&
environment
   Evidence:
health
of
individuals
depends
upon
 how
society
is
organized,
only
marginally
 upon
health
care
system
   Causality
rate
of
army
depends
upon
 decisions
of
officer
corps,
only
marginally
 upon
medical
corps
 Source: United Nations Note: these differences in life expectancy are associated with differing survival rates associated with war wounds.   British
epidemiologist
who
worked
on
the
 “Whitehall
studies”
of
civil
servants
   The
Status
Syndrome
(2004):
health/ mortality
is
a
social
gradient
 Hypothesis: Control over Working conditions Affects heart disease risk     Primarily
through
social
hierarchy,
measured
by
the
 individual’s
social
class
(or
socioeconomic
status,
“SES”)
 Editorial
statement,
Journal
of
the
American
Medical
 Association
(1998,
Vol
85,
p.903):
“There
is
a
striking
 consistency
in
the
distribution
of
mortality
&
morbidity
 between
social
groups.

The
more
advantageous
groups… tend
to
have
better
health.”
(GROUP
DIFFERENCES)
 o  Biomedical
model
tested
in
Journal
of
the
 American
Medical
Association
(1998,
Vol
85)
 “Socioeconomic
factors,
health
behaviors
&
 mortality”
(Lantz
&
colleagues)
 o  This
article
asks
if
SES
(or
social
class)
 matters,
net
of
“health
behaviors”
         Interviewed
3,600
people
age
25
and
over
in
1986,
1989
&
 1994
(longitudinal
study
design
–
“moving
picture,”
not
 just
one
time
“snap
shot”)
 Obtained
death
records
for
the
period
1986
through
1994
 15
percent
of
the
sample
died
during
this
period
 They
divided
the
sample
in
into
three
income
classes
 (measure
of
social
class)
         Smoking,
drinking,
being
overweight
do
not
affects
odds
 of
dying
in
multivariate
test
 Being
underweight
increases
odds
of
dying
(frail
elderly)
 Risk
factors
DO
NOT
MATTER,
net
of
social
class.

 Biomedical
model
REJECTED
 Income
trumps
education;
no
effect
of
education
on
 death,
net
of
income
   Leading
causes
of
death
in
countries
like
the
 U.S.
are
chronic
diseases:
heart
disease,
 stroke
and
cancer
   Medical
intervention
has
limited
impact
on
 death
rate—social
conditions
appear
to
be
 fundamental
     Fundamental
cause
is
something
that
persists
over
time,
 even
though
proximal
conditions
change;
e.g.,
eating
 sugar
used
to
be
associated
with
good
health
because
only
 the
rich
could
afford
sugar;
now
high
sugar
diet
associated
 with
poverty/bad
health
 Social
class
may
be
fundamental
cause
of
death/bad
 health
(this
is
indicated
by
analysis
results
from
Lantz,
et
 al.)
         Example
of
bodily
water
deficit:
activation
of
alarm
 system
within
1)
HPA
axis,
2)
locus
ceruleus,
and
3)
 amygdala‐accumbens
(“set
points”)
 Addictive
behavior
compensates
for
scarcity
of
bio‐ rewards
(e.g.,
dopamine
depravation)
 Visceral
obesity
&
diabetes
result
from
chronic
 physiological
perturbations

 Above
related
to
the
experience
of
social
class,
e.g.,
 “powerlessness”
described
in
Gaventa’s
study
of
 Appalachia
 Social
stratification
is
defined
by
how
society
distributes
 its
highly
valued
resources

   Is
“good
health”
one
of
these
resources?
If
yes,
or
no,
what
 public
policy
principle
should
guide
public
access
to
good
 health?
 ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/21/2011 for the course DSOC 1101 taught by Professor Hirshel during the Fall '07 term at Cornell.

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