Chapter_19

Chapter_19 - Chapter19 Pharmacology Introduction Although...

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Chapter 19 Pharmacology Introduction Although the mass media are always bombarding us with the notion of the desirability of a "drug-free" world, the use of drugs by modern man is probably the single most important reason that the average life expectancy of people living in advanced cultures (currently about 72 years) has nearly doubled in recent times (since the birth of
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microbiology, about 300 years ago). Show Fig. 19.1, Table from old text.
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Pharmaceuticals I. Antibiotics A. Sulfa Drugs B. Penicillins C. Cephalosporins D. Tetracyclines II. Antivirals A. Nucleotide Mimics B. Protease Inhibitors C. Vaccines 1. Antigens 2. Attenuated Virus III.Hormone Regulators A. Agonists B. Antagonists IV.Neurochemicals ([Ag/Antag]onists) A. Acetocholine B. Norepinephrine C. Dopamine D. NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) E. Seratonin F. Adenosine
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G. GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)
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V. Analgesics A. Opiates B. NSAIDS C. Others (acetaminophen) VI.Influenza/Allergy Relief A. Decongestants B. Antitussives C. Expectorants D. Antipyretics E. Antiinflammatory F. Antihistamines VII. Cardiovascular Drugs A. Cholesterol Antagonists B. Diuretics C. Vasodilators D. Beta Blockers E. Calcium Channel Blockers F. Clot Dissolvers VIII. Chemotherapy (anticancer) A. Alkylating Agents B. Antimetabolites
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ANTIBIOTICS Effective against certain types of bacterial but not against viruses. Technically only antibacterials synthesized by other bacteria are antibiotics (ie. not sulfa drugs), but current usage of term has come to include all antibacterials. Kill bacteria by disrupting: cell wall synthesis, folic acid metabolism, cytoplasmic membrane, DNA replication, transcription, or protein synthesis. Sulfa Drugs . Kill bacteria by mimicking PABA (para- aminobenzoic acid) used by bacteria to synthesize folic acid (coenzyme used to make nucleic acids). Humans don't need PABA to make folic acid; we consume folic acid in diet.
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PROBLEM 40. How do sulfa drugs kill bacteria and not humans? @ They disrupt folic acid synthesis in bacteria. We don't make folic acid. Penicillins . Disrupt cell wall synthesis in some (Gram- positive) bacteria. Bacteria make tough polymeric walls around themselves to hold in cell contents under pressure (typically about 30 psi). These walls constructed of modified polysaccharide material crosslinked by oligopeptide. Penicillins specifically disrupt the creation of peptide crosslinks by bacteria attempting to create cell walls. PROBLEM 8. How does penicillin kill bacteria? @ Disrupts cell wall synthesis.
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Cephalosporins . Cephalosporins kill bacteria in fashion similar to penicillins, but have broader spectrum of activity (active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria). Tetracyclines
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This note was uploaded on 12/28/2011 for the course CHEM 1002 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at LSU.

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Chapter_19 - Chapter19 Pharmacology Introduction Although...

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