Chapter_12

Chapter_12 - Chapter12 FossilFuels FossilFuels What is a...

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Chapter 12 Fossil Fuels Fossil Fuels What is a "fossil fuel?" Remains of old old old old dead things (fossils) which can be used (usually burned) for energy (76% world). Like most matter fossil fuels come in three forms: solid (coal), liquid (oil), and gas (natural gas). Currently world uses close to 470 quad(rillion BTU)s energy per year. Boil water from 76 million Olympic-sized swimming pools. In US: 1/20 pools/yr/person. Natural gas reserves: about 5000 quads (11 year supply). Cleanest of big three fossil fuels. Coal: 19,000 quad reserves (40 year supply), dirtiest fossil fuel. Oil:
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7,200 quads reserves (15 year supply). Discuss more details Chap. 13.
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Energy Fossil fuels produce energy when burned in oxygen. Process involves breaking bonds of fuel molecules (costs energy) and creating bonds between atoms of fuel molecules and atoms of oxygen from the air (releases energy). "Oxidized" fuels (mostly carbon dioxide and water) have much less energy content than unburned fuels. Unburned fuels lose high energy content as heat when they burn. Amount of heat generated when fuel burns called "heat of combustion." Fuel (hi E) + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O + heat Can calculate heat of combustion by subtracting amount of energy it takes to break fuel molecule bonds from amount of energy released when carbon dioxide and water made.
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Must put E in to get more E out.
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Organic Chemistry The chemistry of carbon compounds. Notice position of C on Periodic Table. Upper right area of table along with H (hydrogen) forms the "organic block." These atoms all have medium to high electronegativity. Must share electrons to achieve octet config. around atoms. No transfer of electrons possible from one atom to another because all atoms too electron greedy. Carbon catenates (bonds to self) because it has exactly mid-range electronegativity. Can't decide whether it prefers to steal or dump electrons so it is more suited to share than any other atom on the table. Catenation results in "chains" of carbon
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atoms.
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CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 "straight" chain CH 3 CH 2 CH CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 "branched" chain Hydrogens (or other atoms) attached in such a way that carbon always has a valence of four (all C have 4 bonds). Can have double & triple bonds between carbon atoms.
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Compounds made of hydrogen and carbon only. Alkanes : single bonds only; alkenes : at least one C-C double bond; alkynes : at least 1 C-C triple bond; cycloalkanes : rings (circles) of carbons with only single bonds; cycloalkenes or cycloalkynes (rare): double or triple C-C bond connects at least two ring carbons together; aromatics: made of special kinds of rings known as "benzene" rings. CH
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Chapter_12 - Chapter12 FossilFuels FossilFuels What is a...

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