Psyc101_Mod2

Psyc101_Mod2 - Module 2: Critical Thinking Definition:...

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Module 2: Critical Thinking Definition: 1.Actively and skillfully evaluating information to reach some conclusion. Skeptically examining assumptions, evidence, and conclusions. 2.Requires skepticism and curiosity.
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Critical Thinking takes effort because our thinking is biased Hindsight bias We tend to believe, after learning about an outcome, that we would have foreseen it. “I knew it all along”
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Hindsight Bias Examples: It was obvious that smoking would kill you, but only after the cancer risk was discovered. We knew that the dot.com stocks would plummet, only after they did. Saying, “I never trusted that guy” after learning that someone has behaved poorly. “I knew that I never should have taken that class” after getting a poor grade.
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Another Bias: Overconfidence We tend to think we know more than we actually do. Example: " On being sane in insane places Hypothesis: Psychologists can easily identify insane people. Study: Admit 8 sane people, including Rosenhan to different mental hospitals. State “I hear a Thud sound in my head” and then act normally. Measure how much time is required to detect patients’ sanity. David Rosenhan
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Rosenhan’s Study “On being sane in insane places” Larger context: In the 1970s, there was a huge debate over the nature of insanity. Did it actually exist? The shocking results of Rosenhan’s study and his follow up study had a huge impact on this debate. Psychiatrist were clearly overconfident in their ability to identify insane people. David Rosenhan http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hqaptRYjhq4&feature=related
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Overconfidence: Other examples 1.Professional Athletes tend to prefer tournaments in which most of the prize money is concentrated at the top (1 st , 2 nd , 3 rd places) because they are overconfident that they will win a top prize. 2.Employees tend to overestimate their chances of promotion. 3.People who borrow money tend to overestimate their ability to make their monthly payments. 4.People frequently die without a will.
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Student Overconfidence Research shows that most students are overconfident in their knowledge and understanding of course materials. As a result, students study less than they need to
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Psyc101_Mod2 - Module 2: Critical Thinking Definition:...

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