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BUS152-Ch02 - BUS152 Statistics for Social Sciences Spring...

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BUS152 - Statistics for Social Sciences Spring 2011 Chapter 2: Presenting Data in Tables and Charts
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2 Categorical Data Are Summarized By Tables & Graphs Categorical Data Graphing Data Pie Charts Pareto Diagram Bar Charts Tabulating Data Summary Table
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3 Organizing Categorical Data: Summary Table A summary table indicates the frequency, amount, or percentage of items in a set of categories so that you can see differences between categories. Banking Preference? Percent ATM 16% Automated or live telephone 2% Drive-through service at branch 17% In person at branch 41% Internet 24%
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4 Bar and Pie Charts Bar charts and Pie charts are often used for categorical data Length of bar or size of pie slice shows the frequency or percentage for each category
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5 Organizing Categorical Data: Bar Chart In a bar chart, a bar shows each category, the length of which represents the amount, frequency or percentage of values falling into a category. Banking Preference 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% ATM Automated or live telephone Drive-through service at branch In person at branch Internet
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6 Organizing Categorical Data: Pie Chart The pie chart is a circle broken up into slices that represent categories. The size of each slice of the pie varies according to the percentage in each category. Banking Preference 16% 2% 17% 41% 24% ATM Automated or live telephone Drive-through service at branch In person at branch Internet
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7 Organizing Categorical Data: Pareto Diagram Used to portray categorical data (nominal scale) A vertical bar chart, where categories are shown in descending order of frequency A cumulative polygon is shown in the same graph Used to separate the “vital few” from the “trivial many”
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8 Organizing Categorical Data: Pareto Diagram Pareto Chart For Banking Preference 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% In person at branch Internet Drive- through service at branch ATM Automated or live telephone % in each category (bar graph) 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Cumulative % (line graph)
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9 Tables and Charts for Numerical Data Numerical Data Ordered Array Stem-and-Leaf Display Histogram Polygon Ogive Frequency Distributions and Cumulative Distributions
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Organizing Numerical Data: Ordered Array An ordered array is a sequence of data, in rank order, from the smallest value to the largest value. Shows range (minimum value to maximum value) May help identify outliers (unusual observations) Age of Surveyed College Students Day Students 16 17 17 18 18 18 19 19 20 20 21 22 22 25 27 32 38 42 Night Students 18 18 19 19 20 21 23 28 32 33 41 45
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11 Stem-and-Leaf Display A simple way to see how the data are distributed and where concentrations of data exist METHOD: Separate the sorted data series into leading digits (the stems ) and the trailing digits (the leaves )
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12 Organizing Numerical Data: Stem and Leaf Display A stem-and-leaf display organizes data into groups
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