L23Biodiversityforpdf(2)

L23Biodiversityforpdf(2) - 2nd midterm exam: Weds March...

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2 nd midterm exam: Weds March 30 th in class Covers lecture material from Monday 2/28 – Friday 3/25 Practice questions will be posted; review sessions: – Jenny UGTA - Monday (3/28) 4 - 5pm – Jamie UGTA - Tuesday (3/29) 10:30 - 11:30am – Ruhani UGTA - Tuesday (3/29) 4 - 5pm – John GTA - Monday (3/28) 1 - 2pm and 3 - 4pm Be on time – >10 min late will not be allowed into room Bring only your ID and pencils – All other materials have to be left on periphery of the room 35 multiple choice questions + 3 bonus factoid questions lowest of the 3 mid terms is dropped, avg. of other 2 = 60% of your grade Only documented medical/family/accident excuses accepted we need to be NOTIFIED before end of the day on the exam day!
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Fact: Antarctic climate change • Antarctic peninsula warming faster than any other place on earth – 5x faster than the rest of the world • Loss of sea ice – Polar conditions moving southward • Affecting the distribution of penguins – Adelie and their food source need sea ice, moving southward – Chinstraps and Gentoos expanding
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Adelie populations continue to decline on the western side of the peninsula Gentoos are increasing, even expanding southward Chinstraps decline throughout their ranges Lynch et al. 2008
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Fact: Antarctic climate change • Climate can affect biological populations – Reduced winter ice -> Decreased habitat -> Decreased krill • Declining krill affect the three penguin species in different ways – When abundant, live sympatrically and breed successfully – When low, competition favors species differently
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Fact: Antarctic climate change • Affecting the base of the food chain – Phytoplankton around the peninsula are also responding to changes in sea ice and wind • North: more mixing, less light, less phytoplankton • South: less ice, more sunlight, more growth and a shift in the community http://nsf.gov/news/news_images.jsp?cntn_id=114377&org=NSF
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• Accelerated lake cultural eutrophication – Very high productivity stimulated by sewage, factory waste, animal waste runoff, leaching of fertilizer results in increased density of photosynthetic organisms. • Shallow areas become weed choked, affecting recreational activity • Blooms of algae and cyanobacteria can affect concentrations of oxygen – As they die, settle on bottom, decomposers use all oxygen – Some organisms just can’t survive Human activities disrupt chemical cycles
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• Combustion of fossil fuels releases sulfur and nitrogen into the environment, react with water to form acid that eventually falls back to the Earth • The production and disposal of toxins Human activities disrupt chemical cycles
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Biomagnification • Tendency for pollutants to accumulate at certain trophic levels • Taken up and stored by primary producers in the surrounding soil or water • Producers eaten by second trophic level – Because C is lost, 2 nd TL eat more biomass – Can be stored in bodies of consumers
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To Biomagnify, must be: 1. Long lived 2. Mobile 3. Fat soluble 4. Biologically active
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This note was uploaded on 12/22/2011 for the course BIOLOGY 200 taught by Professor L during the Fall '11 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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L23Biodiversityforpdf(2) - 2nd midterm exam: Weds March...

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