Chapt 2 Atoms-Mols-Ions_Students

Chapt 2 Atoms-Mols-Ions_Students - Chemistry, The Central...

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vic agbasi/mvc/su_I_2011 1 1 Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Chemistry, The Central Science , 11th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten vic agbasi mountain view college dallas, tx 2 Atomic Theory of Matter The theory that atoms are the fundamental building blocks of matter reemerged in the early 19th century, championed by John Dalton. 3 Dalton's Postulates Each element is composed of extremely small particles called atoms.
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vic agbasi/mvc/su_I_2011 2 4 Dalton's Postulates All atoms of a given element are identical to one another in mass and other properties, but the atoms of one element are different from the atoms of all other elements. 5 Dalton's Postulates Atoms of an element are not changed into atoms of a different element by chemical reactions; atoms are neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions. 6 Dalton’s Postulates Compounds are formed when atoms of more than one element combine; a given compound always has the same relative number and kind of atoms.
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vic agbasi/mvc/su_I_2011 3 7 Law of Constant Composition or Definite Proportions Joseph Proust (1754–1826) the elemental composition of a pure substance never varies. 8 Law of Conservation of Mass The total mass of substances present at the end of a chemical process is the same as the mass of substances present before the process took place. 9 The Electron c Streams of negatively charged particles were found to emanate from cathode tubes. c J. J. Thompson is credited with their discovery (1897).
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4 10 The Electron Thompson measured the charge/mass ratio of the electron to be 1.76 × 10 8 coulombs/g . 11 Millikan Oil Drop Experiment Once the charge/mass ratio of the electron was known, determination of either the charge or the mass of an electron would yield the other. Robert Millikan (University of Chicago) determined the charge on the electron in 1909. 12 Radioactivity c Radioactivity is the spontaneous emission of radiation by an atom. c
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Chapt 2 Atoms-Mols-Ions_Students - Chemistry, The Central...

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