Chapter 2 - Alkanes and Cycloalkanes(Chapter 2 Hydrocarbons...

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Unformatted text preview: Alkanes and Cycloalkanes (Chapter 2) Hydrocarbons Aromatic Aromatic Aliphatic Aliphatic Alkanes Alkanes Alkynes Alkynes Alkenes Alkenes Bonding Using sp 3 Hybrid Orbitals Each bond in CH 4 formed by overlap of an sp 3 hybrid orbital of carbon with a 1 s orbital of hydrogen. Ethane CH 3 CH 3 C 2 H 6 In-phase overlap of half-filled sp 3 hybrid orbitals Overlap is along internuclear axis to give a σ bond. Rotation Around Single Bonds Rotation occurs around the central C—C σ bond. Alkane Isomers CH 4 CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 CH 2 CH 3 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 methane ethane propane n-butane CH 3 CHCH 3 CH 3 isobutane Only one isomer For all alkanes: All carbons sp 3 Bond angles close to tetrahedral Many alkanes have multiple isomers CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 n-pentane n-hexane CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 n-heptane n-alkanes “ Unbranched ” or “ straight- chain ” alkanes IUPAC Nomenclature of Alkanes IUPAC = International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry •Note: n-prefix is not part of IUPAC name of any alkane. • For example: n-butane is "common name" for CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 ; butane is "IUPAC name." •Others: –Latin or Greek prefix for number of carbons + ane suffix IUPAC Names of Unbranched Alkanes Constitutionally Isomeric Alkanes Step 1) Identify longest continuous carbon chain and use the IUPAC name of the unbranched alkane as the basis....
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Chapter 2 - Alkanes and Cycloalkanes(Chapter 2 Hydrocarbons...

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