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Hybridization - Hybridization Tutor A review of atomic...

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A review of atomic orbitals, hybridization, and bonding molecular orbitals Hybridization Tutor Charles Abrams Assistant Professor, Department of Physical Science and Engineering Truman College, 1145 W. Wilson Ave, Chicago IL 60645 [email protected] Unlimited distribution is encouraged so long as no changes are made and copyright remains with Charles Abrams. Version 1.0 September 9, 2003 Copyright © 2003 Charles Abrams
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1s First, review the shapes of the hydrogen-like orbitals. Copyright © 2003 Charles B. Abrams
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2s First, review the shapes of the hydrogen-like orbitals. Copyright © 2003 Charles B. Abrams
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2p x First, review the shapes of the hydrogen-like orbitals. Copyright © 2003 Charles B. Abrams
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2p y First, review the shapes of the hydrogen-like orbitals. Copyright © 2003 Charles B. Abrams
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2p z First, review the shapes of the hydrogen-like orbitals. Copyright © 2003 Charles B. Abrams
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2s + 2p x + 2p y + 2p z Here are all of the n=2 level orbitals. The problem: these do not point directly towards the surrounding atoms (e.g. for tetrahedral, trigonal planar, or linear molecules) so it is not easy to imagine adding these to make bonds. Copyright © 2003 Charles B. Abrams
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C C H H H H H H Ethane For example, consider the bonding in ethane. Each carbon atom has a tetrahedral geometry, but the orbitals s, p x , p y , and p z do not have a tetrahedral geometry. Copyright © 2003 Charles B. Abrams
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s + p x + p y + p z To to solve the problem of orbitals pointing in the wrong direction, we will hybridize : combine all four of them and get four new orbitals … Copyright © 2003 Charles B. Abrams
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sp 3 + sp 3 + sp 3 + sp 3 Because we combined the s orbital and all three p orbitals, we call these new orbitals sp3 orbitals . There are four of them, each pointing towards a corner of a tetrahedron, exactly where we want them.
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