lecture notes-Chapter13_posted

lecture notes-Chapter13_posted - Chapter 13: Temperature...

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1 Chapter 13: Temperature and Ideal Gas What is Temperature? Temperature Scales Thermal Expansion Molecular Picture of a Gas The Ideal Gas Law Kinetic Theory of Ideal Gases Chemical Reaction Rates Collisions Between Molecules
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2 §13.1 Temperature Heat is the flow of energy due to a temperature difference. Heat always flows from objects at high temperature to objects at low temperature. When two objects have the same temperature , they are in thermal equilibrium .
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3 The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics: If two objects are each in thermal equilibrium with a third object, then the two objects are in thermal equilibrium with each other.
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6 §13.2 Temperature Scales Absolute or Kelvin scale Fahrenheit scale Celsius scale Water boils * 373.15 K 212 ° F 100 ° C Water freezes * 273.15 K 32 ° F 0 ° C Absolute zero 0 K -459.67 ° F -273.15 ° C (*) Values given at 1 atmosphere of pressure.
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7 The temperature scales are related by: ( 29 F 32 C F/ 8 . 1 C F ° + ° ° = T T 273.15 C + = T T Fahrenheit/ Celsius Absolute/ Celsius
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8 Example (text problem 13.3): (a) At what temperature (if any) does the numerical value of Celsius degrees equal the numerical value of Fahrenheit degrees? C 40 32 8 . 1 C C C F ° - = = + = T T T T (b) At what temperature (if any) does the numerical value of Kelvin equal the numerical value of Fahrenheit degrees? ( 29 ( 29 F 574 32 273 8 . 1 32 273 8 . 1 32 1.8 F F C F ° = + - = + - = + = T T T T T
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9 Question 1 Which of the following is the closest to 15 degrees Celsius? A) 8.3 °F B) 27 °F C) 40 °F D) 60 °F
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10 Question 2 Which is smaller, a change of 1 o F or 1 o C? A) 1 o F B) 1 o C C) they are the same
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11 Question 3 A pot of water on the stove is heated from 25 o C to 100 o C . By what factor does the temperature in Kelvin change? A) T 2 = 4 T 1 B) T 2 = 1.25 T 1 C) T 2 = 0.80 T 1 D) T 2 = 0.20 T 1
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12 §13.3 Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids Most objects expand when their temperature increases.
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13 An object’s length after its temperature has changed is ( 29 0 1 L T L + = α α is the coefficient of thermal expansion where T=T-T 0 and L 0 is the length of the object at a temperature T 0.
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14 How does the area of an object change when its temperature changes? The blue square has an area of L 0 2 . With a temperature change T each side of the square will have a length change of L = α∆ TL 0 . L 0 L 0 + L
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15 ( 29 ( 29 ( 29 T A A T A TL L L T TL L TL L TL L = + = + + + = + + = = α 2 2 1 2 2 A area new 0 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 2 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 The fractional change in area is:
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16 The fractional change in volume due to a temperature change is: T V V = β 0 For solids β =3 α
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18 Question 4 The thermal coefficient of volume expansion for a solid is A) a B) 2a C) 3a D) a 3
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Question 5 A metal plate with a hole cut in it is heated. As the plate expands,
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lecture notes-Chapter13_posted - Chapter 13: Temperature...

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