Assignment-2_solution

Assignment-2_solution - CIVL 232 Design of Structural...

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CIVL 232 Design of Structural Concrete Solution to Assignment 2 2.1 (a) Under-reinforced beam: The failure of an under-reinforced beam is characterised by large steel strains, and hence by extensive cracking of the concrete and by substantial deflection. The ductility of such a beam provides ample warning of impending failure. Over-reinforced beam: The failure of an over-reinforced beam is initiated by the crushing of the concrete, while the steel strain is still relatively low. The failure is therefore characterised by a small deflection and by the absence of extensive cracking in the tension zone. The failure, often explosive, occurs with little warning. (b) The strain distribution, forces and stresses of a singly reinforced section with rectangular stress block are shown in the flowing figure. For equilibrium, the ultimate moment M = F cc z (1a) and M = F st z (1b) where the lever arm z = d s /2 = d 0.45 x (2) Concrete compressive force and steel tensile force are F cc = 0.45 f cu b (0.9 x ) (3) F st = 0.95 f y A s (4) Substituting Eqs (2) and (3) into Eq. (1a) gives
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Assignment-2_solution - CIVL 232 Design of Structural...

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