Chemistry 212

Chemistry 212 - Chemistry 212 Lecture 1 Erwin...

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Chemistry 212 Lecture 1: Erwin Schrödinger (1887-1961) - PhD in Physics, Univ. of Zurich (1910) - Served in the Austrian Army during WWI - In 1925 he published his famous wave equation that launched the field of Quantum Mechanics Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976) - PhD in Physics, Univ. of Munich (1923) - In 1926, he was appointed lecturer at the Univ. of Copenhagen, where he developed his theory - Uncertainty Principal of Quantum Mechanics - Nobel Prize in Physics 1932 Paul Dirac (1902-1984) - University of Cambridge - Nobel Prize in Physics 1933 Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Structure: - An orbital is a volume of space where the probability of finding an e-is large, 90- 95% probability at any given time - e-can be described as wave functions (denoted as ψ+ or ψ-); a mathematical tool that can be used to calculate energy and relative probability of finding any given e-in a volume of space - At the Node (surface or plane), ψ = 0 Atomic Orbitals & Electronic Configuration: - OCTET RULE: Atoms attain stable configurations when they have 8 electrons in their outer shell - COVALENT Bonds = shared pairs of electrons - IONIC Bonds =electrostatic forces formed from the transfer of electrons Energy Levels of Atomic Orbitals Aufbau Principal: Orbitals are filled from the lowest to highest energy Hund´s Rule: when adding e-to orbitalsof equal energy, place one e-to each with their spins unpaired Pauli Exclusion Principal: A maximum of 2e- may be placed in each orbital, but only if the spins are paired Fritz Haber - Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1918 mainly for the synthesis of ammonia NH 3 from atmospheric H 2 and N 2 Lecture 2: Brønsted-Lowry Definition of an Acid or Base - An Acid is a substance that can donate a proton (H+)
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- A Base is a substance that can accept a proton (H+) Lewis Definition of Acids and Bases - Acid are electron pair acceptors - Base are electron pair donors - A Curved Arrow Indicates the Direction of the flow of Electrons during a Reaction Lecture 3: Nomenclature – IUPAC System - an Alkyl Group = an Alkane missing 1H atom e.g. CH 4 (Alkane) –1H = -CH 3 (Alkyl group) - the parent name is determined by the longest continuous chain of carbon atoms - numbering of the carbon chain should begin from the terminal closest to the substituent - when two or more substituents are present, each one has a number and is place in the name alphabetically
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Chemistry 212 - Chemistry 212 Lecture 1 Erwin...

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