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revisedmp0108 - CALIFORNIA MARINE LIFE PROTECTION ACT...

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CALIFORNIA MARINE LIFE PROTECTION ACT MASTER PLAN for Marine Protected Areas California Department of Fish & Game Revised Draft January 2008
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California Department of Fish and Game Master Plan for Marine Protected Areas January 2008 Table of Contents Acronyms and Abbreviations ................................................................................................................................... i Executive Summary .................................................................................................................................................. ii 1.0 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................. 1 1.1 California’s Marine Heritage ..................................................................................................................... 2 1.1.1 Oceanography ..................................................................................................................................... 2 1.1.2 Marine Life ........................................................................................................................................... 3 1.2 Factors Affecting California’s Marine Ecosystems ................................................................................... 4 1.3 California’s Marine Management Policies ................................................................................................ 5 1.3.1 The Early Years ................................................................................................................................... 5 1.3.2 Post World War II ................................................................................................................................. 7 1.3.3 Recent Legislation ............................................................................................................................... 8 1.3.4 Fishery Closures and MPAs .............................................................................................................. 11 1.4 Marine Protected Areas Generally ......................................................................................................... 12 1.5 MLPA Initiative Process ......................................................................................................................... 14 1.5.1 Roles in the Marine Life Protection Act Initiative ............................................................................... 15 2.0 Process for Designing Alternative MPA Network Proposals ............................................................... 18 2.1 Identifying Study Regions ...................................................................................................................... 18 2.2 Study Region Timeline ........................................................................................................................... 20 2.3 The Blue Ribbon Task Force MPA Design Process .............................................................................. 21 2.4 Detailed Process for MPA Planning ....................................................................................................... 26 3.0 Considerations in the Design of MPAs .................................................................................................. 31 3.1 Goals of the Marine Life Protection Program ......................................................................................... 31 3.2 MPA Networks ........................................................................................................................................ 33 3.3 Science Advisory Team Guidance on MPA Network Design ................................................................. 34 3.4 Consideration of Habitats in the Design of MPAs .................................................................................. 41 3.4.1 Upwelling Centers .............................................................................................................................. 45 3.4.2 Freshwater Plumes ............................................................................................................................ 45 3.4.3 Larval Retention Areas ...................................................................................................................... 46 3.5 Species Likely to Benefit from MPAs ..................................................................................................... 46 3.6 Biogeographical Regions ....................................................................................................................... 47 3.7 Types of MPAs ....................................................................................................................................... 50 3.7.1 State Marine Reserve ........................................................................................................................ 50 3.7.2 State Marine Park .............................................................................................................................. 51 3.7.3 State Marine Conservation Area ........................................................................................................ 51 3.7.4 State Marine Recreational Management Area ................................................................................... 52 3.7.5 Combined use of marine reserves, marine parks and marine conservation areas ........................... 52 3.8 Levels of Protection for MPA Classifications ......................................................................................... 52 3.8.1 Rationale for categories of protection ................................................................................................ 52 3.9 Setting Goals and Objectives for MPAs ................................................................................................. 54 3.10 Enforcement and Public Awareness Considerations in Setting Boundaries .......................................... 58 3.11 Information Supporting the Design of MPAs .......................................................................................... 59 3.12 Other Programs and Activities Other Than Fishing ............................................................................... 59 4.0 Management .............................................................................................................................................. 62 4.1 Structure of the Regional MPA Management Plans .............................................................................. 63 4.2 Description of Major Elements ............................................................................................................... 64 4.2.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................................ 64 4.2.2 General Activities and Locations ....................................................................................................... 64 4.2.3 Operations ......................................................................................................................................... 65 4.2.4 Costs and Funding ............................................................................................................................. 66 4.2.5 Timelines and Milestones .................................................................................................................. 67 5.0 Enforcement .............................................................................................................................................. 68 5.1 Existing Enforcement Assets ................................................................................................................. 68 5.2 MPA Enforcement Considerations ......................................................................................................... 71 5.3 Enforcement Plan Objectives ................................................................................................................. 72
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California Department of Fish and Game Master Plan for Marine Protected Areas January 2008 6.0 Monitoring and Adaptive Management of MPAs ................................................................................... 73 6.1 Developing a Monitoring and Evaluation Program for MPAs and Network Components ...................... 74 6.2 General Considerations in Identifying Indicators ................................................................................... 77 6.2.1 Biophysical Indicators ........................................................................................................................ 78 6.2.2 Socioeconomic Indicators .................................................................................................................. 78 7.0 Funding ...................................................................................................................................................... 80 7.1 MLPA Funding History ........................................................................................................................... 80 7.2 Blue Ribbon Task Force Input on Future Funding ................................................................................. 81 7.3 Appropriate Sources of Funds ............................................................................................................... 82 7.4 Expected Activities Required to Implement the MLPA ........................................................................... 82 7.5 Possible Partners in Funding or Performing Activities Required to Implement the MLPA .................... 84 7.6 Expected Duration and Levels of Expenditures ..................................................................................... 84 7.7 Structures for Receipt and Allocation of Funds ...................................................................................... 85 Glossary ................................................................................................................................................................. 90 Literature Cited ...................................................................................................................................................... 91 List of Figures Figure 1. Players in the MLPA Initiative .................................................................................................................... 17 Figure 2. Process for MPA planning in study regions .............................................................................................. 22 Figure 3. Flowchart of the review process to determine if individual, regional, and MLPA goals
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