midterm_review

midterm_review - Midterm Review Geography 163 Spring 2010...

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Midterm Review Geography 163 Spring 2010 Midterm Study Guide The following is a list of some concepts we have covered so far this quarter. Keep in mind that this list is not everything we’ve covered and some may or may not be on the midterm exam. If you’ve been doing the assigned readings, have attended lecture, and have put effort into doing the homework you should do well. I suggest going over your notes and the lecture notes posted online. http://www.icess.ucsb.edu/~davey/Geog163/ The Midterm is Tuesday 05/11/2010 BRING A CALCULATOR!!!
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Sea Water Properties Pure water (96.5%); Dissolved salts, gases, organic substances, and particles (3.5% ); Physical properties are mainly determined by pure water. Hydrogen Bonding: Ice crystals are less dense than liquid water; Maximum density is water at 4°C. As lakes cool they reach temperature of maximum density (4°C) & overturn; Later ice forms at the surface, sheltering the interior from winter conditions; This allows fish over winter under the ice. Fundamental seawater properties: Density is the important variable.
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Sea Water Properties Salinity : [mass “salts”]/[mass seawater] The “salts” (Cl-, SO4-2, Na+, K+, etc.) are in approximate constant proportion Law of salinity (residence time is huge) Measure one ion [Cl-] - estimate salinity Units are “practical salinity units” (psu) Temperature: Generally decreases with depth in the ocean Except where ice is formed, temperature changes primarily regulate density Rule of thumb: ∆ρ = +1 kg m -3 for T = -5 C Pressure: weight of sea water lying above a depth (hydrostatic) Pressure varies from 0 to >5000 db p = 0 is atmospheric pressure Note: 1 db pressure ~ 1 m depth Features: Mixed layer Thermocline Halocline
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Density (the key property) Changes in vertical - inhibit mixing Changes in horizontal - drive currents Controled by: temperature salinity (dissolved salt content) pressure (related to depth) in situ density ρ (S,T,p) Sigma-t ρ (S,T,0) – 1000 Sigma- θ ρ (S,q,0) – 1000 Rules of thumb ∆ρ = +1 kg m-3 T = -5C, S = 1 psu or p = 100 db
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Mixing leads to a homogenization of water mass properties Mixing occurs on all scales in ocean molecular scales (10’s of mm) basin scales (1000’s of km) Turbulence interactions cascade energy from big to small scales 10 cm eddies Small-scale turbulence Shear-driven 200 km eddies Mesoscale Geostrophic
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Buoyancy Dense water sinks - light water floats Density profile will increase with depth
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midterm_review - Midterm Review Geography 163 Spring 2010...

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