AU10methodsoutline

AU10methodsoutline - 9/25/10 1 2 3 4 5 6 Research and...

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9/25/10 1 Research and Methods pp: 63-96 Thinking critically Place of scientific method as a particular way of knowing How to conduct scientific research Be aware of possible problems and solutions Ethical considerations The Big Question How can we know if something is true? How can we know if we should belief something? Thinking critically Extraordinary claims Coherent set of beliefs Falsifiability Is it possible to disprove in principle? Occam’s razor Parsimony (simpler explanation possible) Replicability Is it a one time fluke? Ruling out rival hypotheses More than one theory could explain something (Relation to falsifiability) Correlation vs. causation Correlation IS NOT equal to causation Do plants grow more if you talk to them? What do you think? Why? How would you prove it? Ways of Knowing Common sense Nothing is obvious “Reliable”sources Internet News Teachers Parents 1 2 3 4 5
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9/25/10 2 Faith Other cultures rely on shamans that use substances to give advice Ways of Knowing Popular wisdom Everyone knows it Proverbs - Birds of a feather flock together - Opposites attract - The bigger, the better - Good things come in small packages - The more the merrier - Two’s company, three’s a crowd - You can’t teach an old dog new tricks - You’re never too old to learn - Is pop Psychology real Psychology? Naïve Psychology Everyone has a personal theory about the way that people think, feel and behave. This is an advantage AND a disadvantage Difference between Psychology and Naïve Psychology: Psychology is a science uses the scientific method Informal Reasoning Evaluate a conclusion or course of action based on the believability of evidence. NOT based on logic. Heuristic: Time saving mental shortcuts Heuristic vs. algorithm Informal Reasoning Anchoring Heuristic Basing judgment on existing knowledge as an anchor You believe: Probability of being mugged 90% Evidence: Probability of being mugged 1% You Adjust: Probability of being mugged 80% Representativeness Heuristic Base judgments in the degree of similarity to a category Availability Heuristic Base judgment on information that most easily come to 6 7 8 9
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9/25/10 3 mind. What is more dangerous planes or cars?
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This note was uploaded on 12/26/2011 for the course PSYCH 100 taught by Professor H during the Fall '07 term at Ohio State.

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AU10methodsoutline - 9/25/10 1 2 3 4 5 6 Research and...

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