AU10Socialpsychology

AU10Socialpsychology - 11/6/10 1 2 3 4 5 6 Social...

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11/6/10 1 Social Psychology Social influence Conformity, compliance, & obedience Attributions Aggression Attitudes Persuasive messages Cognitive dissonance Stereotypes & prejudice Motivation in the Presence of Others Motivation in the Presence of Others Triplett’s Observations and Experiment (1897) Bicycle racers performed better in presence of another person Social facilitation: presence of others enhances performance Social impairment: presence of others hurts performance Aren’t these two contradictory? Motivation in the Presence of Others Presence of others increases arousal or motivation Increases sense of being evaluated Increases tendency to perform dominant behaviors Easy, familiar tasks – social facilitation Difficult, unfamiliar tasks – social impairment Motivation in the Presence of Others Social loafing Tendency to expend less effort on a collective task Why? Harder to evaluate performance Rewards may come regardless of individual effort Rewards divided equally Reduced accountability Motivation in the Presence of Others Social Striving Tendency to work harder in groups than when alone Why? Group success more valued than individual success 1 2 3 4 5 6
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11/6/10 2 Individual contributions to group success more valued Collectivistic vs. Individualistic cultures Attributions Attributions Attribution Process of explaining causes of people’s behavior, including one’s own Understand behavior Predict future behavior Control situation if occurs again Attributions Inferences about the causes of behavior The answers we generate when we ask ourselves “why” a person acted a certain way Two types of inferences Internal (dispositional) attribution External (situational) attribution Internal vs. External Attributions Internal (dispositional) attribution When something about the person is believed to be primarily responsible for the outcome, we attribute the outcome to the person’s disposition External (situational) attribution When something about the specific situation is believed to be primarily responsible for the outcome, we attribute the outcome to external, situational factors. Biases in Attribution We don’t always have the motivation or ability to consider all of the pieces of info that might help us understand others’ behavior Instead we rely on shortcuts that can bias the types of attributions we make We judge the causes of behavior very quickly, sometimes on 7 8 9 10 11
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11/6/10 3 the basis of very little information, even though we might be wrong Attributional Biases Fundamental attribution error Bias toward over attributing behavior of others to internal causes and attributing own behavior to internal causes Collectivistic cultures tend to show it less (i.e. interpret actions of others as an interaction between situation and internal causes). Why?
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This note was uploaded on 12/26/2011 for the course PSYCH 100 taught by Professor H during the Fall '07 term at Ohio State.

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AU10Socialpsychology - 11/6/10 1 2 3 4 5 6 Social...

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