7 - Flour

7 - Flour - Flour Feb 3 25, 2010 Wheat varieties are...

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Flour Feb 3 – 25, 2010 Wheat varieties are classified as follows: Kernel colour Red or white wheat Refers to the outside brain layer of the kernel Anthocyanin gives the red colour to wheat Protein-starch structure Hard or soft wheat Degree of association between the protein and starch causes difference Hard wheat Soft wheat Texture is more granular - Softer/silkier between fingers High amount of association between protein & starch - Protein content: 12-14% glutin - Protein content: 7-9% Planting season Spring or winter wheat Refers to the season when planted Spring Winter Greater water requirement during growing season - Lower water requirement during growing season Shorter growing season - Dormant until winter Planted in spring, harvested in fall - Planted in late fall, harvested in following spring Predominant in Canada Hard red winter wheat is the primary flour wheat source in North America 12% protein Chewiness comes from glutin Major component of all-purpose flour (which is a mixture of different flours) Primary flour for loaf bread Hard red spring wheat ~14% glutin protein Gives firmer texture, related to protein content Good for bread rolls Desirable for bagel-making Soft winter wheat Lower protein content (7-9%) Finer, silky texture White wheats Noodle-making Triticale Canadian development in 1930s Rye + regular wheat gives drought-tolerant wheat Requires less water during growing Milling of wheat for flour: Milling = physically breaking down kernel and extracting of fractions of interest; grinding Milled wheat will yield ~75% flour – mostly endosperm of the seed (in all-purpose or cake flour; 90% recovery of kernel for whole wheat flour) The remainder consists of the: o Wheat germ
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Flour Feb 3 – 25, 2010 o Lipid component o Completely absent in white flour o Small amount remaining in whole wheat flour
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7 - Flour - Flour Feb 3 25, 2010 Wheat varieties are...

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