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9 - Fruits & Vegetables

9 - Fruits & Vegetables - Fruits Vegetables Canadas...

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Fruits & Vegetables March 1-3, 2010 Canada’s Food guide recommends 7-10 servings per day Juice box can be counted as 2 servings 1 medium sized fruit or veggie ½ cup of fresh, frozen, or canned product 1cup of salad; half cup cooked leafy veggies ½ cup of 100% juice Plant tissues ultimately supply the majority of the human food supply: 100-200 species are important in world trade 14 species are responsible for the bulk of food crops: Starch Legumes Oil/Lipid Protein Fibre Rice Beans Soybean Wheat Sweetness Peanuts Sorghum Sugar Cane Coconut Barley Sugar Beets Banana Cassava Potato/Sweet Potato What is a fruit? A fruit is defined as the mature ovary of a flower including the seeds: i. Simple fruit Pomes = apples, pears Drupes = stone fruit; plums, cherries, peaches Citrus = limes, oranges ii. Aggregate fruit Single flower with multiple stamens or ovaries Soft berries Ex. raspberries, blackberries, strawberries iii. Multiple fruit Cluster of multiple flowers Ex. pineapple, figs Main difference between fruit & veggies: as fruits mature, sugar levels increase as starch levels decrease (starch is converted to sugar); in veggies, starch levels increase and sugar levels decrease
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Fruits & Vegetables March 1-3, 2010 What is a vegetable? Vegetables include other edible forms of plant tissue including: i. Roots Tap root energy (CHO) storage deposits as starch Beets, carrots, radishes, parsnips, rutabagas, turnips, daikon, celeriac (celery root) ii. Tubers Enlarged, edible fleshy stems growing under the ground White potatoes, sweet potatoes, Jerusalem artichoke, jicama iii. Stems Brassica family: functional foods – act as antioxidants Broccoli, Brussels sprouts, celery iv. Leaves High water content Rich in vitamins & minerals Contain chloroplasts & chlorophyll o Give colour Dark green = pro vit A cabbage, Chinese cabbage, endive, parsley, cilantro, leaf lettuce, head lettuce, kale, kohlrabi v. Pods & Seeds Legumes & pulses Valued for starches, soften protein sources Valued for oil content Seeds from the Leguminosae family, a family of plant unique for the ability to fix nitrogen into the soil, thus enriching the soil
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