5-6 - Methods of Data Collection

# 5-6 - Methods of Data Collection - Methods of Data...

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Classical Experimental Design Backbone of scientific evidence Research design used extensively in scientific disciplines o Most particularly in clinical trials involving humans Its hallmark is the use of experimental and control groups - We saw this with Snowdon - Control groups often given a placebo unknowingly - Participants don’t know which group they’re in for obvious reasons Empirical Evidence Collecting data: facts and info about human behaviour and society, and the natural and physical worlds Data is collected through experiments. Surveys, questionnaires, and observation Testing a Hypothesis: The Experiment Experimental research is explanatory It attempts to investigate the cause and effect of a particular phenomenon under highly controlled conditions It asks WHAT happened and WHY it happened Specific Test Typically, researchers turn to an experiment to test a specific hypothesis Hypothesis = An unverified statement of a relationship between variables Tests the relationship between an dependent and independent variable Prediction: a change in the value of the independent variable will likely change the value of the dependent variable Independent variable = variable that causes the change Dependent variable = variable that changes Independent Variable Help to predict, or have some possible influence on the variations in a dependent variable Often demographic variables (ex SES, age, sex, income, etc) Dependent Variable Is the outcome variable Often influenced by other independent variables It is the “effect” in the cause & effect relationship Causal Model Independent variable intervening test factor dependent variable Antecedent test factor independent variable dependent variable What is the relationship between senior high school students with plans for further post-secondary education by socio-economic status? - How is this question framed? - It tells us that there’s no direction to the hypothesis (doesn’t know the relationship) Operationalizing the Hypothesis How might the change in SES influence the plans for further post-secondary education in senior students? Change in SES will have an impact on the student’s plans Null Hypothesis (H 0 ) Always states that there is no relationship between the independent and dependent variables H 0 : the two variables are independent of each other. In other words, there is no relationship between SES and further education plans. Research Hypothesis (H 1 ) Always states that there is a relationship between the independent and dependent variables H 1 : the two variables are not independent of one another. In other words, there is a relationship between SES and future educational plans. Population

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## 5-6 - Methods of Data Collection - Methods of Data...

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