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chapter 40 - Chapter 40,44 2011 ­03 ­23 Chapter...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 40,44 2011 ­03 ­23 Chapter 40 Form, func7on, temperature (energy) 40.1 Animal form and func7on are correlated at all levels of organiza7on Table 40.1 Cells 7ssues  organs  systems Tissue epithelial connective muscle nervous ! Structural characteristics Thightly packed cells Basal lamina Cuboidal Columnar Squamous shaped Simple Stratified or pseudostratified Few cells that secrete extracellular matrix of protein fibers in liquid, or solid matrix General functions Protection Absorption Secretion Lines the body surfaces Specific examples Mucous membrane; may be ciliated; Glandular epithelium; Lining of blood vessels Connect and support other tissues Long cells (fibers) with filaments of actin and myosin Neurons with cell bodies, axons, and dentrites; supportive glial cells. contraction movement Loose connective tissues; adipose; fibrous connective tissues; bone; cartilage; blood skeletal smooth cardiac Nerves brain Sense stimuli, Conduct impulses 40.2 Feedback control loops maintain the internal environment in many animals  figure 40.3 contact with environment 1.  Homeostasis : steady state , dynamic equilibrium–body temperature, blood glucose, ion concentra7on figure 40.8 2.  Feedback loops in homeostasis: nega7ve feedback: overheat and sweat posi7ve feedback: baby birth 3.  acclima7za7on: to; climate: become accustomed to a new climate or to a new condi7on 40.3 Homeostasic processes for thermoregula7on involve form, func7on, and behavior 1. Endothermic Ectothermic 2. Poikilotherm (varied) Homeotherm (like) 3.  non ­organism and organism  mammal radia7on integumentary system evapora7on (to cover inside: skin/hair) convec7on figure 40.11 conduc7on figure 40.10 40.4 Energy requirements are related to animal size, ac7vity, and environment 1.  Basal metabolic rate BMR: empty ­stomach, non ­stressed endotherm, a confortable temperature range standard metabolic rate SMR: the metabolic rate of a fas7ng, nonstressed ectotherm at rest at a par7cular temp. related to animal size, ac7vity 2.  Torpor: low ac7vity, decreased metabolism, to avoid difficult situa7on 3.  Hiberna7on: long ­term torpor vertebrate endotherms – decreased body temp. low metabolic rate Chapter 44 Osmoregula7on: water Nitrogenous waste Excretory systems Nephron Hormonal circuits: kidney func7on—water balance– blood pressure 44.1 osmoregula7on balances the uptake and loss of water and solutes 1.  Osmosis osmolarity: osmo7c pressure, solute concentra7on expressed in molarity 2.  osmoconformer :isoosmo7c with its enviroment osmoregulator: independent from its enviroment 3. Stenohaline: narrow salt  ­ can not tolerate substa7al changes euryhaline: braod salt – survive large fluc7a7ons 4. marine animals freshwater animals animals that lives in temporary waters land animals 5. osmoregula7on: transport epithelium figure 44.7 salt ­excre7ng nasal glands figure 44.8 44.2 An animal‘s nitrogenous wastes reflect its phylogeny and habitat 1.  Forms of nitrogenous wastes: figure 44.9 ammonia urea uric acid What kind of animals Ways to expel 2. evolu7on 44.3 Diverse excretory systems are varia7ons on a tubular theme 1.  Figure 44.10 key func7ons of excretory systems filtra7on, reabsorp7on, secre7on, excre7on 2. Protonephridia: first kidney  ­ ­ planarian metanephridia  ­ ­ earthworm malpighian tubules – insects kidneys – human figure 44.14 Fig. 44 ­14 Renal medulla Posterior vena cava Renal artery and vein Aorta Renal cortex Kidney Renal pelvis Ureter Urinary bladder Urethra Ureter (a) Excretory organs and major associated blood vessels Juxtamedullary nephron Sec=on of kidney from a rat (b) Kidney structure Cortical nephron 10 µm 4 mm Afferent arteriole Glomerulus from renal artery Bowman s capsule SEM Proximal tubule Peritubular capillaries Renal cortex Efferent arteriole from glomerulus Collecting duct Renal medulla To renal pelvis (c) Nephron types Branch of renal vein Loop of Henle Distal tubule Collecting duct Descending limb Ascending limb (d) Filtrate and blood flow Vasa recta Fig. 44 ­15 44.4 The nephron is organized for stepwise processing of blood filtrate Proximal tubule NaCl Nutrients HCO3– H 2O K+ H+ N H3 Distal tubule H 2O NaCl K+ HCO3– H+ Filtrate CORTEX Loop of Henle 1.  What substances 2.  Ac7ve or passive NaCl OUTER MEDULLA H 2O NaCl Collecting duct Urea Key Active transport Passive transport NaCl INNER MEDULLA H 2O 44.5 Hormonal circuits link kidney func7on, water balance, and blood pressure Osmoreceptors in hypothalamus trigger release of ADH. Thirst Hypothalamus Drinking reduces blood osmolarity to set point. An7diure7c hormones (ADH): vasopressin produced in hypothulumus stored in the posterior pituitary gland: secretory ADH Increased permeability Pituitary gland Distal tubule H2O reabsorption helps prevent further osmolarity increase. STIMULUS: Increase in blood osmolarity Aquaporin channels Collecting duct Homeostasis: Blood osmolarity (300 mOsm/L) The Renin ­Angiotensin ­Aldosterone system Liver Distal tubule Angiotensinogen Renin Atrial natriure7c pep7de Angiotensin I Vascular endothelium ACE Angiotensin II Juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) Afferent arteriole STIMULUS: Low blood volume or blood pressure Adrenal gland Blood loss/reduced intake of salt  ­CHO Aldosterone Increased Na+ and H2O reabsorption in distal tubules Arteriole constriction Homeostasis: Blood pressure, volume ...
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