Chapter46 - Chapter 46 2011 ­03 ­30 Go with...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 46 2011 ­03 ­30 Go with chapter 33,34 Invertebrates, Vertebrates 46.1 Both asexual and sexual reproducAon occur in the animal kingdom 46.2 FerAlizaAon depends on mechanisms that bring together sperm and eggs of the same species 46.3 ReproducAve organs produce and transport gametes 46.4 The Aming and paJern of meiosis in mammals differ for males and females 46.5 The interplay of tropic and sex hormones regulates mammalian reproducAon 46.6 In placental mammals, an embryo develops fully in the mother’s uterus 46.1 Both asexual and sexual reproduc6on occur in the animal kingdom 1. sexual reproducAon (ferAlizaAon): the fusion of haploid gametes (sperm and eggs, meiosis) forms a diploid cell, the zygote (ferAlized egg). Asexual reproducAon: no fusion of egg and sperm. mitoAc cell division (mitosis) 2. Mechanisms of asexual reproducAon: 1)Budding ­ coral, hydra 2) fragmentaAon, regeneraAon ­ sea stars, sponges, cnidarians, bristle worms, and sea squirts. 3)Parthenogenesis ­ an egg develops without being ferAlized.  ­ bees( honeybees male ­n, female ­ferAlized, 2n), wasps, ants fishes, amphibians, repAles ­ doubling chromosomes aWer meisosis, producing diploid offspring. 3. ReproducAve cycles and paJerns:  ­related to seasons, environmental resources OvulaAon: egg, the release of mature eggs (ovulate) Exhibit asexual and sexual reproducAon ­ aphids, roAfers, water fleas hermaphrodiAsm 46.2 Fer6liza6on depends on mechanisms that bring together sperm and eggs of the same species 1.  External ferAlizaAon: a moist habitat, spawning; courtship internal ferAlizaAon 2.  Egg numbers egg structure 3.  gonad: the organs produces gametes cloaca: digesAve, excretory, reproducAve systems have a common opening to the outside; non ­mammalian vertebrates 46.3 Reproduc6ve organs produce and transport gametes Figure 46.10, 46.11 ­ posiAon, morphology, funcAon 1.  Female reproducAve anatomy 1)  Ovary, ovaries: follicles, corpus luteum (yellow), oocyte, oogenesis, oviduct, 2)  Mammary gland: only produce milk in female, sacs of epithelial Assues 2.  Male reproducAve anatomy 1)  Testis, testes: seminiferous tubules(semen), lydig cells, scrotum 2)  Ducts: epididymis (upon, duo ­two), vas deferens (carry away), urethra 46.4 The 6ming and paDern of meiosis in mammals differ for males and females 1.  Gametogenesis Spermatogenesis p1008 oogenesis p1009 2. Spermatogonial stem cell (seed) spermatogonium primary spermatocyte secondary spermatocyte (from mieosis I, n) early spermaAd (from mieosis II, n) sperm 3. Primordial germ cell oogonium primary oocyte (present at birth, prophase of meiosis I) secondary oocyte (metaphase of meiosis II) 46.5 The interplay of tropic and sex hormones regulates mammalian reproduc6on GnRH: gonadotropin ­releasing hormone Gonadotropin: FSH ­ follicle ­sAmulaAng hormone LH ­luteinizing hormone Menstrual cycle: month; uterine (uterus) cycle Fig 46.13 Fig 46.14 46.6 In placental mammals, an embryo develops fully in the mother’s uterus 1.  ConcepAon 2.  pregnancy, gestaAon (carry in the womb) cleavage, blastocyst, endometrium (womb) 3. Trimesters (3 month) (semester ­ 6 month) first second third Nutrients from endometrium 30cm in length 50 cm in length Blastocyst, trophoblast ­plancenta Fetal movement Frequent urinaAon Organogenesis ­8 weeks; fetus DigesAve blockage hCG declines Strain in the back muscle Corpus luteum deteriorates High levels of progesterone Placenta ­ producAon of progesterone 4. Labor: figure 46.18 5. LactaAon (milk) 6. ContracepAon (against; concepAon) 7. Abortion: RU 486 ­ first 7 weeks, progesterone receptors in the uterus ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/27/2011 for the course LSCI 103 taught by Professor K.y.liao during the Spring '11 term at National Cheng Kung University.

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