Lecture08

Lecture08 - 9 How to Pick a GIS How to Pick a GIS Getting...

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Unformatted text preview: 9 How to Pick a GIS How to Pick a GIS Getting Started With GIS Chapter 9 Choosing the GIS GIS users need to be aware of different GIS GIS software products during system selection and beyond OpenGIS (OGC) standards have led to a OpenGIS new generation of choices for software Informed choice is the best way to Informed select the best GIS 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 The Evolution of GIS Software GIS and Operating Systems GIS Software Capabilities GIS Software and Data Structures Choosing the Best GIS Functionality What functions must a GIS perform? What What functions can it perform? What What software has what functions? What First management step is often to make First a requirements matrix: needs vs. capabilities 1 A functional definition of GIS A GIS is often defined not for what it is GIS but for what it can do. If the GIS does not match the If requirements for a problem, no GIS solution will be forthcoming. A GIS may have overcapacity. GIS GIS software in 1979 A historical GIS “snapshot” was the IGC historical snapshot” survey conducted in 1979 In the 1979 survey, most GISs were In sets of loosely linked FORTRAN programs performing spatial operations Computer mapping programs had Computer evolved GIS functionality GIS as a toolbox… How did functions develop over time? How What are the differences among What software packages? What are any given packages strengths What and weaknesses? What other factors come into play, cost, What training, maintenance, robustness, etc. GIS in the 1980s Spreadsheet was ported to the Spreadsheet microcomputer, allowing “active” data active” Relational DBMS evolved as the leading Relational means for database management Single integrated user interface Single Degree of device independence Degree Led to the first true GIS software Led 2 GIS in the 90s X windows and the GUI Used graphical user interfaces and the Used desktop/WIMP model Unix workstations integrated GIS with Unix the X-windows GUI XGISs began to use the OS GUI instead GISs of their own PCs integrated GIS with the variants of PCs Windows and other OSs GIS in the 2000s Mobile systems Mobile Web-based extensions WebDistributed systems and data Distributed Most software now object-oriented Most objectNew competition: OpenSource New Web services Web Location-based services Location- Trends still under way Open Source development tools now Open ubiquitous, e.g. geotools libraries GoogleEarth, Virtual Earth, etc. GoogleEarth, Mash-up solutions Mash- 3 The “critical six” functional capabilities data capture data storage storage management management retrieval retrieval analysis analysis display display Steps in mosaicing Data capture functions digitizing digitizing scanning scanning mosaicing mosaicing editing editing generalization generalization topological cleaning topological Rubber sheeting 4 Line generalization Storage functions compression compression metadata handling metadata control via macros or languages control format support format Compression By data structure By quad trees quad run length encoding run By data format By compressed TIF compressed jpeg jpeg Data management functions physical model support physical DBMS DBMS address matching address masking masking cookie cutting cookie By physical compression By digit handling digit 5 Cookie cutting Data retrieval functions locating locating selecting by attributes selecting buffering buffering map overlay map map algebra map Map algebra Generic functions? 6 Data analysis functions Interpolation Interpolation Optimal path selection Optimal Geometric tests Geometric Slope calculation Slope Line-of-sight Line- ofWorkflow support Workflow Data display functions Desktop mapping Desktop Interactive modification of cartographic Interactive elements Graphic file export Graphic Support for new map types Support Support for press quality Support Interpolation ? How to Pick a GIS 8.4 GIS Software and Data Structures 8.5 Choosing the Best GIS 7 Functional capabilities are byproducts of data structure Raster systems work best in forestry, Raster photogrammetry, remote sensing, photogrammetry, terrain analysis, and hydrology. Vector systems work best for land Vector parcels, census data, precise positional data, and networks. Vector Precision intact Precision Used when individual coordinates are Used important More concise spatial description More Assumes feature model of landscape Assumes Easy to transform data e.g. map Easy projections Commercial GIS Raster Better for field data Better Used by most imaging systems Used Can be compressed Can Easy to display and analyze Easy Many common formats Many However, most systems now use both However, Raster layer often backdrop-onscreen Raster backdropediting 8 Commercial GIS (ctd.) TatukGIS. Gdynia, Poland. The Big Eight Form the bulk of operational GIS in Form professional and educational environments There are some significant differences There between these “big eight” systems. eight” ArcGIS ESRI Redlands, CA Market leader PC and workstation remarkable functionality many formats supported 9 ArcPad Mobile GIS Designed for GPS and PDA Developer package Uses Windows CE GRASS QGIS First UNIX GIS Developed by Army Corps of Engineers UNIX functionality Many unique functions Free until recently Many data sets Baylor University now supports AutoCAD MAP Windows all versions SQL DBF Access Extension to AutoCAD Menu-based Massive installed base Added grid, projection & topology support DB links good. 3D links good IDRISI Developed at Clark University, Worcester MA Original in PASCAL, with open code Development uses a specialty Windows/DOS Spatial analysis/stats /modeling extensions 10 Maptitude GeoMedia Caliper Corporation Consultancy TRANSCAD and GIS+ Many network solutions Windows Import/Export Address matching MapInfo CAD software with GIS extensions Intergraph Corp, Huntsville AL Uses Windows NT Many parcel applications Web extensions, server tools etc. Based in Troy, NY Mapping functions Uses Visual Basic Many applications Favored for 911, field Manifold GIS 11 Sample code libraries Open Source GIS cgal.org: CGAL Open Source Project to cgal.org: provide easy access to efficient and reliable geometric algorithms in the form of a C++ library OGR: Simple features library, C++ open OGR: source library (and commandline tools) providing R/W access to vector file formats GEOS: Geometry Engine - Open Source, C++ GEOS: port of the Java Topology Suite (JTS) Basis in standards: OGC critical, but others e.g. Basis GeoVRML, X11, GML Includes code level tools, scripts, libraries, and Includes utilities Clearinghouses for information: e.g. Clearinghouses opensource.org Support fora, wikis, lists, etc Support Whole GIS systems e.g. GRASS, QGIS Whole Whole web-based support systems e.g. Whole webMapServer Open Source GIS Sample software tools TARDEM, A suite of programs for the TARDEM, Analysis of Digital Elevation Data Merkaartor is an OpenStreetMap editor Merkaartor distributed under the GNU General Public License Worldwind: browser tool for geospatial Worldwind: data QGIS Quantum GIS–QGIS is a user friendly Open Source GIS that runs on Linux , Unix, Mac OS X, and Windows. http://ww w.qgis.org/ MapWindow GIS Free, open source GIS desktop application and programming component. http://ww w.mapw indow.org/ ILWIS Integrated Land and Water Information System. Integrates image, vector and thematic data. http://ww w.itc.nl/ilwis/ uDig uDig is an open source desktop application framework, built with Eclipse Rich Client technology . http://udig.refractions.net/ JUMP GIS / OpenJUMP–(O Java Unified Mapping Platform. OpenJUMP, SkyJUMP, deeJUMP, and Kosmo emerged from JUMP. http://ww w.jump-project.org/ Capaw are rc1 0.1 General purpose virtual w orlds 3D view er. A free software project started in 2007 to promote the development of free s o http://ww w.capaw are.org/ Kalypso An Open Source GIS (Jav a, GML3) that focuses on water management. Supports modeling and simulation. TerraView Desktop GIS that handles vector and raster data stored in a relational or geo-relational database, a frontend for TerraLib. http://ww w.dpi.inpe.br/terraview/index .php http://ww w.ohloh.net/p/kalypso GeoServer GeoServ er is an open source softw are server w ritten in Jav a that allows users to share and edit geospatial data. Design http://geoserv er.org/display/GEOS/Welcome WebMap Server Open source protocol and tools for serv ing GIS data over the Internet. MapGuide Open Source Web-based platform that enables users to quickly develop and deploy web mapping applications and geospatial web se http://mapguide.osgeo.org/ MapServer Web-based mapping serv er, developed by the Univ ersity of Minnesota. http://mapserver.org/ PostGIS Spatial extensions for the open source PostgreSQL database, allowing geospatial queries. http://postgis.refractions.net/ http://terraserver-usa.com/ogcwms.aspx H2Spatial for Spatial extension for an open source DBMS H2_(DBMS). http://geosysin.iict.ch/irstv -trac/wiki/H2spatial/Download SpatialLite for SQLite SpatiaLite ex tension enables SQLite to support spatial data in a w ay conformant to OpenGis specifications. http://ww w.gaia-gis.it/spatialite-2.0/index.html MySQL Spatial MySQL spatial extensions following the specification of the Open Geospatial Consortium. http://dev .my sql.com/doc/refman/5.0/en/spatial-extensions.html 12 For example: uDig A variety of issues should be considered in system selection: cost cost upgrades upgrades LAN configuration support LAN training needs training ease of installation ease maintenance maintenance documentation and manuals documentation help-line and vendor support helpmeans of making patches means For example: Quantum GIS Selecting a GIS can be a complex and confusing process. The intelligent GIS consumer should The research, select, test, and question systems before purchase Match needs and requirements Match Be prepared to upgrade continuously Be workforce workforce 13 The needs matrix System 1 System 2 System 3 System 4 etc Coming next….. Requirement 1 Requirement 2 Requirement 3 Requirement 4 …. Requirement N Yes/No Ranking Score Weighted Score GIS in Action 14 ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/28/2011 for the course GEOG 176a taught by Professor Clarke during the Fall '09 term at UCSB.

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