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Unformatted text preview: General Circulation and Kinetic Energy Model output from Warren M. Washington, 1969: http://www.ucar.edu/library/collections/washington/timeline/timeline.php?startdate=19630101&enddate=19691231 Application of the Primitive Equations • Primitive equations govern the evolution of the atmosphere and therefore are useful to forecast the weather and also for climate simulations. They are: p c J p T dt dT + = ϖ κ ( 29 z p w p dp t p s s s p s s ∂ ∂ ∇ ⋅ ⋅ ∇ = ∂ ∂ ∫ V V V ⋅∇ = ∂ ∂ p ϖ p RT p = ∂ Φ ∂ F V k V + × Φ∇ = f dt d HORIZONTAL MOTION 2 COMPONENTS u,v (PROGNOSTIC) HYPSOMETRIC EQUATION: DIAGNOSTIC THERMODYNAMIC ENERGY EQUATION (PROGNOSTIC) CONTINUITY BOTTOM BOUNDARY CONDITIONS • 1) Imagine that you are using an atmospheric model of primitive equations. This model starts from a state of rest. The atmosphere is stably stratified and there is friction at the surface • t=0 :Tropics begin to warm and polar regions coool in response to the distribution of diabatic heating. Changes in geopotential will begin • Resulting pressure gradients will start the circulation in upper • 2) Changes in the distribution of mass will occur due to the upper troposphere circulation. Mass will increase in high latitudes => High pressure at the surface and decrease in the tropics => low pressure at the surface...
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 Fall '09
 leila

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