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Unformatted text preview: General Circulation and Kinetic Energy Model output from Warren M. Washington, 1969: http://www.ucar.edu/library/collections/washington/timeline/timeline.php?startdate=19630101&enddate=19691231 Application of the Primitive Equations Primitive equations govern the evolution of the atmosphere and therefore are useful to forecast the weather and also for climate simulations. They are: p c J p T dt dT + = ( 29 z p w p dp t p s s s p s s    = V V V  = p p RT p = F V k V +   = f dt d HORIZONTAL MOTION 2 COMPONENTS u,v (PROGNOSTIC) HYPSOMETRIC EQUATION: DIAGNOSTIC THERMODYNAMIC ENERGY EQUATION (PROGNOSTIC) CONTINUITY BOTTOM BOUNDARY CONDITIONS 1) Imagine that you are using an atmospheric model of primitive equations. This model starts from a state of rest. The atmosphere is stably stratified and there is friction at the surface t=0 :Tropics begin to warm and polar regions coool in response to the distribution of diabatic heating. Changes in geopotential will begin Resulting pressure gradients will start the circulation in upper 2) Changes in the distribution of mass will occur due to the upper troposphere circulation. Mass will increase in high latitudes => High pressure at the surface and decrease in the tropics => low pressure at the surface...
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 Fall '09
 leila

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