synapse - SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION I Tim Murphy NRSC 500, 2011

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SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION I Tim Murphy NRSC 500, 2011 The definition of synaptic transmission is simply the communication between two nerve cells. Communication believed to involve specialized structures termed "synapses". We will focus on: 1) The discovery of synaptic transmission 2) The form of transmission, i.e. chemical or electrical 3) Criteria for a chemical transmitter 4) Ionic requirement for release 5) Quantal aspects of release: vesicle theory
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Discovery of synaptic transmission Cajal's golgi staining methods suggested the presence of contacts between cells that were used for communication ~1900’s. Sherrington proposed the term "synapse" meaning to clasp to describe the structure, 1890’s.
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Shepherd 1997 TINS Cajal’s drawings Sherrington’s insights 1890s. of golgi stain.
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Modern golgi staining, YFP mouse cortical fluorescence, can be bred to other KO’s, transgenics Feng et al. 2000.
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From Kristin Harris Lectures. http://synapses.mcg.edu/lab/harris/lectures.htm
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Otto Loewi, chemical transmitter. 1936 Nobel prize for Medicine Showed that vagus nerve stimulation liberates a diffusible transmitter. Perfusate from one stimulated frog heart could be transferred to another and have an effect on beat frequency.
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Debate on synaptic transmission - chemical or electrical. Otto Loewi showed that acetylcholine could mimic the effect of vagal nerve stimulation. What additional experiment would have been nice to prove that the vagal nerve released acetylcholine. The results of Loewi's experiments sparked debate about whether chemical and electrical transmission was occurring. Subsequently shown that both chemical and electrical transmission exist.
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From Kristin Harris Lectures. http://synapses.mcg.edu/lab/harris/lectures.htm
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From Kristin Harris Lectures. http://synapses.mcg.edu/lab/harris/lectures.htm Chemical Electrical
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From Kristin Harris Lectures. http://synapses.mcg.edu/lab/harris/lectures.htm
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Electrical Synapses Gap junction-type communication important for rapidly synchronizing syncytia of cells as is observed in astrocytes, heart, and developing brains. Present in some invertebrates to promote rapid defensive secretions. Problems with electrical: difficult to modulate gating of channels (exceptions exist cAMP, pH). Can't change sign, i.e. charge always flows "down hill." Electrical synaptic transmission requires that the presynaptic cell or terminal be larger than the postsynaptic cell for it to inject considerable charge, no real amplification mechanism.
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Electrical synaptic transmission . Fundamental Neuro.
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Saint-Amant and Drapeau Neuron 2001 Chemical transmission inhibitors do not block transmission in developing Zebrafish.
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Saint-Amant and Drapeau Neuron 2001 Gap junction inhibitors block transmission in developing Zebrafish.
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Chemical transmission. Contrary to electrical transmission multiple steps
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This note was uploaded on 12/28/2011 for the course STEP 1 taught by Professor Dr.aslam during the Fall '11 term at Montgomery College.

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synapse - SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION I Tim Murphy NRSC 500, 2011

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