Bioenergetics and Glycolysis-1

Bioenergetics and Glycolysis-1 - Bioenergetics and...

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Bioenergetics and Glycolysis Getting the E out of C
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Overall Chemical Reaction For all of Cellular Respiration C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 --- 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O Overall free energy = 687 kcal/mol or 3.8 kcal/g Not really that efficient (Stay tuned for the actual)
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Energy Transfer follows thermodynamic laws Gibbs helmholtz ΔG = ΔH – TΔS Enthalpy Entropy – Remember ΔS universe > 0 is a spontaneous process Overall if ΔG < 0 the process is spontaneous ΔG = -RTlnK Relates ΔG to equilibrium ΔG are additive State function Overall ΔG has to be – for a process to be spontaneous
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Le Chatelier’s Principle and ΔG Remember Le Chatelier and affect on equilibrium If one reaction has a positive ΔG, but the next reaction, which is in equilibrium has a negative ΔG , the first reaction can be pulled through Many examples of this in glycolysis
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ATP (Adenosine Tri-Phosphate) O H P O O O P O O O P O O O N O N N OH OH N NH 2
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Hydrolysis of ATP O H P O O O P O O O P O O O N O N N OH OH N NH 2 O H P O O O P O O O N O N N OH OH N NH 2 O P O O O + ATP ------ ADP + Pi + 7.3 kcal
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Energy from ATP hydrolysis 7.3 kcal /mol (30.5 kJ/mol for you SI nuts) Energy from: Separation of negative charges Increased entropy Phosphate now free…2 things instead of one Resonance stabilization of phosphate
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Other Energy sources Hydrolysis of thioester Resonance stabilization of carboxylate Energy released from group transfer, not simply hydrolysis Coenzyme A (CoA) is an important thiol that forms thioesters R S O R' R O O S H R +
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Coenzyme A O P O O O O P O O O P O O O N O N N OH N NH 2 C C CH 3 CH 3 H OH C N O H CH 2 CH 2 C O N CH 2 CH 2 H S H from pantothenic acid (Vitamin B 5 ) from beta alanine
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Redox Review: Electron transfer reactions
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