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Biological Anthropology LaboratoryLab 2: Molecular Genetics – How evolution happensComplete the following readings, questions, and lab exercises in this document.Concept review questions 1 – 10; Exercises 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10Critical thinking questions 1 – 7On a separate document, complete the concept review and the critical thinking questions andsubmit them to me via Canvas or campus email.You do not need to submit the laboratory exercises. However, to understand the material theseexercises should be completed.*Pages that are not sequel in number are due to the preceding page being blank and soomitted.
LABGeneticstisearlyMarch1953.Researchershavebeenworkingoffandonforseveralyearson aninteresting scientificproblem.TheyhavebeentryingtodeterminethestructureofDNA.Sofar,scientistshaveiden-tifiedthebiologicalcompoundsadenine,thymine,guanine,andcyto-sineinDNA,andtheyrecognizethatthesecompoundsappeartofollowsomesortofpattern:thequantitiesofadenineandthyminearethesame,andthe quantitiesofguanineandcytosinearethesame.ThankstothehardworkofRosalindFranklin(FIGURE2.11,manyX-rayphotographsofDNAhavebeentaken,whichshow thatithasacompact,potentiallyhelicalstructure.Thesefirst stepshavemadeasignificantcontributiontotheunderstandingofDNA’soverallshapeandcomponents,butmany questionsstillremain. Howissomuchinformationkept insuchatinypackage,andwhatcouldexplainthepaired quantitiesofadenineandthymineandof guanineandcytosinemr›lecules?Aftermonthsandmonths,andafewfrustratingmissteps,researchersinEnglandareabouttoanswerthesequestions.Theteamhas anewidea.Whatiftheadenineandthyminebondtogetherinthestructure,ancttheguanineandcytosinealsobondtogetherilhat ideawouldcertainlyexplaintheirsimilarquantities,butisitrealoranotherfalselead?27
LAB2}C›eneticsDNAreplicatesandhowitcodesforproteinsinthebody.WHATISACELL?AFIGURE2.1DNAPioneersMuchofwhatweknowaboutDNAandgeneticstodayispossiblebecauseoftheworkofresearcherslike(A]RosalindFranklinwhose(BJX-rayphoto-graphsofDNA helpedrevealitsunderlyingstructure.Cellsarethe mostbasicunitsoflife.Alllivingorganismsare madeofcells.Someorganisms,suchasbacteria,aremadeofonlyonecell.Thecellsofbacteriadonothaveacellnucleus,andtheseorganismsarecalledprokaryotes.Otherorganisms,suchasplantsandanimals,aremadeofmanycells.Thecellsofplantsandanimalshaveprokaryotearganism(suchasabacteriumJthathas acellwithoutanucleusandisoftenmadeofonIyasinglecelleuLg,yoteorganismanimalJthatiGmadeofmanycellsthathavecellnucleinuoTeustheareainsideaeukaryoticeel|thatcontainsmostofthecell'sDNADNA{deoxyribonuoleicacid)thechemicalthatactsasthegeneticblueprintforanorganismnuclearDMAtheDNAfoundinthenucleusotaceIIorganelleatypeofcell partwithitsown

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