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stapes-surgery-slides-071121 - Complications of Stapes...

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Unformatted text preview: Complications of Stapes Surgery Complications Garrett Hauptman MD Tomoko Makishima MD University of Texas Medical Branch Department of Otolaryngology November 21, 2007 Overview Overview History of stapes surgery Causes of stapes fixation Review of otosclerosis Patient evaluation Stapes surgical technique Complications of stapes surgery Intraoperative Post­operative History of Stapes Surgery History of Stapes Surgery Samuel Rosen 1953 – first suggest mobilization of the stapes Immediately improved hearing Problem with re­fixation History of Stapes Surgery History of Stapes Surgery John Shea 1956 – first to perform stapedectomy Oval window vein graft Nylon prosthesis from incus to oval window Overview Overview History of stapes surgery Causes of stapes fixation Review of otosclerosis Patient evaluation Stapes surgical technique Complications of stapes surgery Intra­operative Post­operative Causes of Stapes Fixation Causes of Stapes Fixation Otosclerosis ≥ 95% of stapes surgery Congenital stapes fixation Hearing outcomes worse with stapes surgery compared to otosclerosis Groups stratified into ABG < 10 db and ABG < 20 dB Massey B et al. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2006. Tympanosclerosis Hearing outcomes worse with stapes surgery compared to otosclerosis Mobilization through plaque removal –vs­ stapedotomy Vincent R et al. Otol Neurotol 2002. Overview Overview History of stapes surgery Causes of stapes fixation Review of otosclerosis Patient evaluation Stapes surgical technique Complications of stapes surgery Intraoperative Post­operative Otosclerosis Otosclerosis Bone disease only seen in otic capsule Causes progressive hearing loss Conductive­ primarily stapes involvement Sensorineural­ cochlear involvement Mixed Epidemiology Epidemiology 10% overall prevalence of histologic otosclerosis 1% overall prevalence of clinically significant otosclerosis Bilaterality more common Epidemiology Epidemiology Race Incidence of otosclerosis Caucasian 10% Asian 5% African American 1% Native American 0% Epidemiology Epidemiology Gender Histologic otosclerosis – 1:1 ratio Clinical otosclerosis – 2:1 (W:M) Possible progression during pregnancy (10%­17%) Studies demonstrating changes during pregnancy usually retrospective or lack audiometric data Studies comparing multigravid –vs­ nulligravid women with otosclerosis fail to show audiometric differences Epidemiology Epidemiology Age 15­45 most common age range of presentation Youngest presentation 7 years Oldest presentation 50s 0.6% of individuals < 5 years old have foci of otosclerosis Pathophysiology of Otosclerosis Pathophysiology of Otosclerosis Osseous dyscrasia Resorption and formation of new bone Limited to the temporal bone and ossicles Inciting event unknown Hereditary, endocrine, metabolic, infectious, vascular, autoimmune, hormonal Pathology Pathology Two phases of disease Active (otospongiosis phase) Osteocytes, histiocytes, osteoblasts Active resorption of bone Dilation of vessels Schwartze’s sign Mature (sclerotic phase) Deposition of new bone (sclerotic and less dense than normal bone) Pathology Pathology Most common sites of involvement Fissula ante fenestrum Round window niche (30%­50% of cases) Anterior wall of the IAC Overview Overview History of stapes surgery Causes of stapes fixation Review of otosclerosis Patient evaluation Stapes surgical technique Complications of stapes surgery Intraoperative Post­operative Patient Evaluation Patient Evaluation History Gradual onset with slow progression over several years Typically presents during late teens or twenties 70% are bilateral Family history usually positive Patient Evaluation Patient Evaluation Physical examination Otoscopy (often with the operating microscope) Pneumo­otoscopy look for Schwartze sign: red blush over the promontory or area anterior to oval window evaluates for middle ear effusion or small perforation Tuning fork exam may confirm or dispute finding of conductive hearing loss on audiometry Patient Evaluation Patient Evaluation Audiometry Standard audiometry Air conduction Bone conduction Speech audiometry Immittance audiometry Tympanometry­ lower peak than normal (As) Static compliance Acoustic reflexes­ absent in advanced disease Overview Overview History of stapes surgery Causes of stapes fixation Review of otosclerosis Patient evaluation Stapes surgical technique Complications of stapes surgery Intraoperative Post­operative Stapes Surgery Stapes Surgery Informed consent Total sensorineural hearing loss occurs 0.2% of cases Less than 2% chance of further hearing loss Dizziness may occur post­operatively Usually transient and brief May persist for short time Rarely could be permanent Possible facial paralysis/palsy Tinnitus Recurrent conductive hearing loss Middle Ear Examination Middle Ear Examination Mobility of ossicles Confirm stapes fixation Evaluate for malleus or incus fixation Abnormal anatomy Dehiscent/overhanging facial nerve Deep narrow oval window niche Ossicular abnormalities Stapedectomy –vs­ Stapedotomy Stapedectomy –vs­ Stapedotomy Stapedectomy Uses Extensive fixation of the footplate Floating footplate Disadvantages Increased post­op vestibular symptoms More technically difficult Increased potential for prosthesis migration Stapedotomy Originally for obliterated or solid footplates Europe 1970­80 First laser stapedotomy performed by Perkins (1978) Less trauma to the vestibule Less incidence of prosthesis migration Less fixation of prosthesis by scar tissue Stapedotomy Stapedotomy Microdrill 0.7mm diamond burr Laser Avoids manipulation of the footplate Argon and Potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP/532) Motion of the burr removes bone dust Minimizes smoke production/surrounding heat production Wave length 500 nm Visible light Absorbed by hemoglobin Surgical and aiming beam Carbon dioxide (CO2) 10,000 nm Not in visible light range Surgical beam only Requires separate laser for an aiming beam (red helium­neon) Stapedectomy –vs­ Stapedotomy Stapedectomy –vs­ Stapedotomy ABG closure < 10dB (PTA) Sequence of Stapes Surgery Sequence of Stapes Surgery Retrospective review Measured incidence of: 376 patients 420 stapedotomies Incus subluxation Floating footplate Results Footplate perforation before stapes arch removal ↓ risk of floating footplate Incus subluxation ↓ when prosthesis placed prior to stapes arch removal Szymanski M et al. Otol Neurotol 2007. Classic Stapes Surgery Approach Classic Stapes Surgery Approach 1. 2. 3. Stapes superstructure removed Fenestration of footplate Prosthesis placement Modified Stapes Surgical Approach Modified Stapes Surgical Approach 1. 2. 3. Fenestration of footplate Stapes superstructure removal Prosthesis placement Modified Stapes Surgical Approach Modified Stapes Surgical Approach 1. 2. 3. Fenestration of footplate Prosthesis placement Stapes superstructure removal Overview Overview History of stapes surgery Causes of stapes fixation Review of otosclerosis Patient evaluation Stapes surgical technique Complications of stapes surgery Intra­operative Post­operative Problems During Stapes Surgery Problems During Stapes Surgery Exposed overhanging facial nerve Occurs ~9% of stapes procedures May block footplate access making completion impossible Prosthesis touching facial nerve generally does not create problem May displace nerve superiorly while performing stapedotomy Problems During Stapes Surgery Problems During Stapes Surgery Floating Footplate Footplate dislodges from surrounding oval window niche Prevention Usually iatrogenic Incidental finding Laser Footplate control hole Management Abort Proceed Total stapedectomy Laser fenestration/microdrill fenestration Problems During Stapes Surgery Problems During Stapes Surgery Diffuse Obliterative Otosclerosis Occurs when footplate, annular ligament, and oval window niche are involved Closure of air­bone gap < 10 dB less common Refixation commonly occurs Fenestra created with microdrill Problems During Stapes Surgery Problems During Stapes Surgery Fixed malleus Rare problem Must always check Must check mobility of prosthesis after placement Problems During Stapes Surgery Problems During Stapes Surgery Perilymph Gusher ­ profuse flow of perilymph immediately upon opening vestibule Rare – 0.03% incidence Associated with congenital footplate fixation Possibly due to: Widened vestibular aqueduct Defect in IAC fundus Management Tissue graft over oval window Complete procedure if possible Consider lumbar drain Problems During Stapes Surgery Problems During Stapes Surgery Intraoperative vertigo Causes Prosthesis too long Checking prosthesis mobility Management Shorter prosthesis (try 0.25mm shorter piston) Post­operative Complications Post­operative Complications Sensorineural Hearing Loss Most devastating complication of stapes surgery Ranges from mild to total loss or may be isolated to high frequencies <1% ­ 3% incidence of profound permanent SNHL Surgeon experience Extent of disease Cochlear Prior stapes surgery Post­operative Complications Post­operative Complications Sensorineural Hearing Loss (cont.) Temporary Permanent Serous labyrinthitis Reparative granuloma Suppurative labyrinthitis Extensive drilling Basilar membrane breaks Vascular compromise Sudden drop in perilymph pressure Management Prednisone taper started immediately Post­operative Complications Post­operative Complications Sensorineural Hearing Loss (cont.) Prospective study with Otology­Neurotology Database 3050 stapedotomies for otosclerotic stapes fixation (2525 patients) Results Significant post­op SNHL (> 15dB) 0.5% overall 4.8% in obliterative otosclerosis 0 cases with simultaneous malleus ankylosis Vincent R et al. Otol Neurotol 2006. Post­operative Complications Post­operative Complications Recurrent Conductive Hearing Loss Slippage or displacement of the prosthesis Most common cause of failure Immediate Technique Trauma Delayed Slippage from incus narrowing or erosion Adherence to edge of oval window niche Stapes re­fixation Progression of disease with re­obliteration of oval window Malleus or incus ankylosis Post­operative Complications Post­operative Complications Recurrent Conductive Hearing Loss (cont.) Prospective study 260 pts with ABG ≥ 20dB after stapedotomy or stapedectomy 1 month to 35 years after surgery Cause of CHL 81% prosthesis displacement Other causes: Residual footplate fixation Malleus fixation Incus fixation Incus dislocation Lesinski SG. Otol Neurotol 2002. Post­operative Complications Post­operative Complications Recurrent Conductive Hearing Loss (cont.) Recommendations Laser stapedotomy Teflon/platinum stapedotomy prosthesis Prosthesis 0.25mm longer than distance between incus undersurface and footplate Clotted blood oval window seal Minimize mechanical trauma Use tissue seal Perilymph gusher Footplate fracture When stapedotomy too large Lesinski SG. Otol Neurotol 2002. Conductive Hearing Loss Conductive Hearing Loss Mechanism: After Stapedotomy Collagen tissue seal contracts Prosthesis lifts out of stapedotomy Prosthesis migrates to fixed stapes footplate Conductive Hearing Loss Conductive Hearing Loss Mechanism: After Stapedectomy Collagen tissue seal contracts Neomembrane lateralizes Erosion of incus causing loosening of wire loop Post­operative Complications Post­operative Complications Serous labyrinthitis Common following surgery secondary to inner ear inflammation Symptoms Unsteadiness Positional vertigo Slight high frequency hearing loss Management Expectant Post­operative Complications Post­operative Complications Vertigo More common with stapedectomy than stapedotomy Occurs ~5% of cases Rarely prolonged or severe Usually lasts a few hours to one week Due to serous labyrinthits Rapidly subsides Supportive management Post­operative Complications Post­operative Complications Vertigo (cont.) Intraoperative or immediately post­op: lasts up to 1 week without intervention Inner ear trauma Prosthesis/instrument contact with membranous labyrinth (utricular macula) Perilymph aspiration Isolated delayed vertigo Trauma to otolith organs creating BPPV­like picture Perilymphatic fistula Post­operative Complications Post­operative Complications Delayed Vertigo Retrospective review 9 pts with delayed vertigo (1month to seven years post­op) underwent exploratory tympanotomy Suspected perilymph fistula in all pts 3 pts had perilymph fistula Fibrin glue placed in oval window area in all pts No post­operative vertigo Albera R et al. Laryngoscope 2004. Post­operative Complications Post­operative Complications Perilymph Fistula Rare complication after stapes surgery Presents with: Mixed hearing loss Vague unsteadiness Vertigo Management Remove prosthesis carefully → tissue seal the oval window → prosthesis replaced Mechanism of Post­operative Mechanism of Post­operative Perilymph Fistula: Stapedotomy Incus medially displaced by contracture adhesions between incus and promontory Prosthesis medializes into vestibule Mechanism of Post­operative Mechanism of Post­operative Perilymph Fistula: Stapedectomy Prosthesis migration from center to edge of oval window Vibration tears weaker shortened edge of membrane Post­operative Complications Post­operative Complications Tinnitus Possibly related to serous labyrinthitis Management Reassurance Routine tinnitus measures Post­operative Complications Post­operative Complications Facial paralysis/palsy Rare Delayed onset Typically lasts several weeks Occurs in 5­day post­op setting Usually incomplete paralysis Management Prednisone­ usually complete response Post­operative Complications Post­operative Complications Facial paralysis/palsy (cont.) Retrospective review 2152 stapes surgeries (2106 pts) 0.51% delayed facial palsy Occurred 5­16 days post­op Measurements House­Brackmann grade Serum antibody titer (HSV1, HSV2, VZV) Conclusion Serology suggests activation of latent herpesvirus Shea JJ et al. Otol Neurotol 2001. Post­operative Complications Post­operative Complications Facial paralysis/palsy (cont.) Retrospective review 706 stapes surgeries (580 pts) 0.01% delayed facial palsy Measurements House­Brackmann grade Serum antibody titer (HSV1) Conclusion Serology suggests activation of latent herpesvirus Treat with acyclovir Salvinelli F wt al. Am J Otol 2004. Post­operative Complications Post­operative Complications Reparative granuloma Very rare­ associated with Gelfoam use Patient presentation Initial hearing improvement followed by gradual/sudden deterioration over 1 to 6 weeks Reddish discoloration in posterosuperior quadrant Occasional vertigo Management Granuloma removal Post­operative Complications Post­operative Complications Chorda Tympani damage Occurs ~30% of cases due to nerve stretching/mobilization Causes temporary (3­4 months) Dry mouth Tongue soreness Metallic taste Symptoms less severe with sectioning of nerve Post­operative Complications Post­operative Complications Tympanic membrane perforation May occur during elevation of tympanomeatal flap Does not preclude completion of operation Repair involves myringoplasty or tympanoplasty with either synthetic material or autologous tissue Post­operative Complications Post­operative Complications Meningitis Creation of fistula introduces route for potential meningitis Case report 33yo♀ POD 1 with vertigo, n/v, hearing loss, severe pain Later developed neck stiffness LP with cloudy CSF Blood Cx with streptococcus pneumoniae Treated with IV antibiotics Nielsen TR et al. J Laryngol 2000. Post­operative Complications Post­operative Complications Psychiatric complication Case report Underlying schizoaffective disorder Stapedectomy performed with complete closure of ABG Pt believed surgery resulted in: Improved sound perception Thought broadcasting Mevio E et al. Auris Nasus Larynx 2000. Prosthesis Selection Prosthesis Selection Robinson piston Relatively heavy – may increase risk of displacement into vestibule Handle can cause necrosis Wire piston Incus necrosis due to: mass crimping tightness Crimping angle may favor movement resulting in displacement over time Mangham CA. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2000. Prosthesis Selection Prosthesis Selection Vertigo assessment Randomized­blinded controlled trial 174 original Fisch prosthesis –vs­ 108 modified prosthesis No difference in closure of ABG Post­operative vertigo reduced Wang ZM et al. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2005. Modified Prosthesis Modified Prosthesis 45 degree slope at distal piston end Anatomically configured to avoid saccule Revision Stapes Surgery Revision Stapes Surgery Retrospective review 63 surgeries (56 pts) Revision reason Recurrent or persistent ABG > 20dB post­surgical treatment for otosclerosis Prosthesis malfunction was primary failure cause Gros A et al. Otol Neurotol 2005. Revision Stapes Surgery Revision Stapes Surgery Results 52.4% ABG ≤ 10 dB 9.5% without change 6.3% decreased hearing ≥ 5 dB Recommendations Examine Prosthesis attachment to incus Oval window niche Pistons can be removed easily Tissue wire prostheses Difficult to remove­ laser helps with removal Increased risk of SNHL Gros A et al. Otol Neurotol 2005. Stapes Surgery by Residents Stapes Surgery by Residents Retrospective review 71 stapedotomies (laser­assisted fenestra) 87% with closure of air­bone gap ≤ 10 dB Complications High­frequency SNHL of 15­30 dB in 3 pts Transient vertigo in 3 pts No sensorineural deafness Matthews SB et al. Laryngoscope 1999. Conclusion Conclusion Stapes surgery Delicate structures Small area Important surroundings Surgeon must be aware of potential complications and management Informed consent is essential Bibliography Bibliography Albera R et al. Delayed vertigo after stapes surgery. Laryngoscope 2004; 114: 860­2. Cummings CW. Otolaryngology: Head and Neck Surgery 4th edition. Chapter 156; 2005. Gros A et al. Success rate in revision stapes surgery for otosclerosis. Otol Neurotol 2005; 26: 1143­8. Lesinski SG. Causes of conductive hearing loss after stapedectomy or stapedotomy: a prospective study of 279 consecutive surgical revisions. Otol Neurotol 2002; 23: 281­8. Mangham CA. Platinum ribbon­Teflon piston reduces device failure after stapes surgery. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2000; 123: 108­13. Massey BL et al. Stapedectomy in congenital stapes fixation: are hearing outcomes poorer? Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2006; 134: 816­8. Matthews SB et al. Stapes surgery in a residency training program. Laryngoscope 1999; 109: 52­3. Mevio E et al. Stapes surgery and psychiatric complications. Auris Nasus Larynx 2000; 27: 275­6. Nielsen TR et al. Meningitis following stapedotomy: a rare and early complication. J Laryngol Otol 2000; 114: 781­3. Salvinelli F et al. Delayed peripheral facial palsy in the stapes surgery. Am J Otolaryngol 2004; 25: 105­8. Shea JJ et al. Delayed facial palsy after stapedectomy. Otol Neurotol 2001; 22: 465­70. Szymanski M et al. The influence of the sequence of surgical step on complication rates in stapedotomy. Otol Neurotol 2007; 28: 152­6. Vincent R et al. Surgical findings and long­term hearing results in 3.050 stapedotomies for primary otosclerosis: a prospective study with the otology­neurotology database. Otol Neurotol 2006; 27: S25­47. ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/28/2011 for the course STEP 1 taught by Professor Dr.aslam during the Fall '11 term at Montgomery College.

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