Thyroid-benign-slide - Benign Thyroid Benign Thyroid Diseases University of Texas Medical Branch Dept of Otolaryngology Grand Rounds Presentation

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Unformatted text preview: Benign Thyroid Benign Thyroid Diseases University of Texas Medical Branch Dept of Otolaryngology Grand Rounds Presentation Alan Cowan, MD Shawn Newlands, MD, PhD May 2006 History History Goiter – Fist described in China in 2700 BC Thyroid Function – Da Vinci – thyroid is designed to fill empty spaces in the neck – Parry – thyroid works as a buffer to protect the brain from surges in blood flow – Roman physicians – thyroid enlargement is a sign of puberty Cures – “application of toad’s blood to the neck” – “stroking of the thyroid gland with a cadaverous hand” Surgical advances Surgical advances 500 AD – Abdul Kasan Kelebis Abis performed the first goiter excision in Baghdad. – Procedure: unknown 1200’s AD – Advancements in goiter procedures included applying hot irons through the skin and slowly withdrawing them at right angles. The remaining mass or pedicled tissue was excised. – Patients were tied to the table and held down to prevent unwanted movement. – Most died from hemorhage or sepsis. 1646 AD – Wilhelm Fabricus performed a thyroidectomy with standard surgical scalpels. – The 10 y/o girl died, and he was imprisoned 1808 AD – Guillaume Dupuytren performed a total thyroidectomy. – The patient died postoperatively of “shock” Surgical advances Surgical advances 1866 – “If a surgeon should be so foolhardy as to undertake it [thyroidectomy] … every step of the way will be environed with difficulty, every stroke of his knife will be followed by a torrent of blood, and lucky will it be for him if his victim lives long enough to enable him to finish his horrid butchery.” – Samuel David Gross Surgical advances Surgical advances 1883 Kocher’s performs a retrospective review 5000 career thyroidectomies Mortality rates decreased – – – 40% in 1850 (pre­Kocher & Bilroth) 12.6% in 1870’s (Kocher begins practice) 0.2% in 1898 (end of Kocher’s career) Many patients developed cretinism or myxedema His conclusions …. Surgical advances Surgical advances In presentation to the German Surgical Congress … “ …the thyroid gland in fact had a function….” ­ Theodor Kocher, 1883 Medical Advances Medical Advances 1820 AD – Johann Straub and Francois Coindet found that use of seaweed (iodine) reduced goiter size and vascularity 1830 AD – Graves and von Basedow describe a toxic goiter condition they referred to as “Merseburg Triad” – goiter, exopthalmos, palpitations. Thyroid Physiology Thyroid Physiology Iodine transport Iodine transport Na+/I­ symport protein controls serum I­ uptake Based on Na+/K+ antiport potential Stimulated by TSH Inhibited by Perchlorate Thyroid hormone formation Thyroid hormone formation Thyroid Peroxidase (TPO) – Apical membrane protein – Catalyzes Iodine organification to tyrosine residues of thyroglobulin – Antagonized by methimazole, PTU Iodine coupled to Thyroglobulin – Monoiodotyrosine (Tg + one I­) – Diiodotyrosine (Tg + two I­) Pre­hormones secreted into follicular space Wolff­Chaikoff Effect Wolff­Chaikoff Effect Increasing doses of I­ increase hormone synthesis initially Higher doses cause cessation of hormone formation. This effect is countered by the Iodide leak from normal thyroid tissue. Patients with autoimmune thyroiditis may fail to adapt and become hypothyroid. Jod­Basedow Effect Jod­Basedow Effect Opposite of the Wolff­Chaikoff effect Excessive iodine loads induce hyperthyroidism Observed in hyperthyroid disease processes – – – Graves’ disease Toxic multinodular goiter Toxic adenoma – – – Dietary changes Contrast administration Iodine containing medication (Amiodarone) This effect may lead to symptomatic thyrotoxicosis in patients who receive large iodine doses from Perchlorate Perchlorate ClO4­ ion inhibits the Na+ / I­ transport protein. Normal individuals show no leak of I123 after ClO4­ due to organification of I­ to MIT / DIT Patients with organification defects show loss of RAIU. Used in diagnosis of Pendred syndrome Thyroid Hormone Control Thyroid Hormone Control TRH TRH Produced by Hypothalamus Release is pulsatile, circadian Downregulated by T3 Travels through portal venous system to adenohypophysis Stimulates TSH formation TSH TSH Produced by Adenohypophysis Thyrotrophs Upregulated by TRH Downregulated by T4, T3 Travels through portal venous system to cavernous sinus, body. Stimulates several processes – – – Iodine uptake Colloid endocytosis Growth of thyroid gland TSH Response TSH Response Thyroid Hormone Thyroid Hormone Majority of circulating hormone is T4 – – 1.5% T3 Total Hormone load is influenced by serum binding proteins – – – 98.5% T4 Albumin 15% Thyroid Binding Globulin 70% Transthyretin 10% Regulation is based on the free component of thyroid hormone Hormone Binding Factors Hormone Binding Factors Increased TBG – High estrogen states (pregnancy, OCP, HRT, Tamoxifen) – Liver disease (early) Decreased TBG – Androgens or anabolic steroids – Liver disease (late) Binding Site Competition – – – NSAID’s Furosemide IV Anticonvulsants (Phenytoin, Carbamazepine) Thyroid Evaluation Thyroid Evaluation TRH TSH Total T3, T4 Free T3, T4 RAIU Thyroglobulin Antibodies: Anti­TPO, Anti­TSHr Thyroid Evaluation Thyroid Evaluation RAIU RAIU Scintillation counter measures radioactivity after I123 administration. Uptake varies greatly by iodine status – Indigenous diet (normal uptake 10% vs. 90%) – Amiodarone, Contrast study, Topical betadine Elevated RAIU with hyperthyroid symptoms – Graves’ – Toxic goiter Low RAIU with hyperthyroid symptoms Thyroiditis (Subacute, Active Hashimoto’s) Hormone ingestion (Thyrotoxicosis factitia, Hamburger Thyrotoxicosis) – Excess I­ intake in Graves’ (Jod­Basedow effect) – Ectopic thyroid carcinoma (Struma ovarii) – – Iodine states Iodine states Normal Thyroid Inactive Thyroid Hyperactive Thyroid Common Thyroid Common Thyroid Disorders Goiter Goiter Goiter: Chronic enlargement of the thyroid gland not due to neoplasm Endemic goiter – Areas where > 5% of children 6­12 years of age have goiter – Common in China and central Africa Sporadic goiter – Areas where < 5% of children 6­12 years of age have goiter – Multinodular goiter in sporatic areas often denotes the presence of multiple nodules rather than gross gland enlargement Familial Goiter Goiter Etiology – Hashimoto’s thyroiditis Early stages only, late stages show atrophic changes May present with hypo, hyper, or euthyroid states – Graves’ disease Due to chronic stimulation of TSH receptor – Diet Brassica (cabbage, turnips, cauliflower, broccoli) Cassava – Chronic Iodine excess Iodine excess leads to increased colloid formation and can prevent hormone release If a patient does not develop iodine leak, excess iodine can lead to goiter – Medications Lithium prevents release of hormone, causes goiter in 6% of chronic users – Neoplasm Goiter Goiter Pathogenesis – Iodine deficient areas Heterogeneous response to TSH Chronic stimulation leads to multiple nodules – Iodine replete areas Thyroid follicles are heterogeneous in their growth and activity potential Autopsy series show MNG >30%. Thyroid function evaluation – – – TSH, T4, T3 Overt hyperthyroidism (TSH low, T3/T4 high) Subclinical hyperthyroidism (TSH low, T3/T4 normal) Determination of thyroid state is key in determining treatment Non­Toxic Goiter Non­Toxic Goiter Cancer screening in non­toxic MNG – Longstanding MNG has a risk of malignancy identical to solitary nodules (<5%) – MNG with nodules < 1.5 cm may be followed clinically – MNG with non­functioning nodules > 4cm should be excised No FNA needed due to poor sensitivity Incidence of cancer (up to 40%) – FNA in MNG Sensitivity 85% ­ 95% Specificity 95% Negative FNA can be followed with annual US Insufficient FNA’s should be repeated Incoclusive FNA or papillary cytology warrants excision – Hyperfunctioning nodules may mimic follicular neoplasm on FNA Non­Toxic Goiter Non­Toxic Goiter Treatment options (no compressive symptoms) – US follow­up to monitor for progression – Thyroid suppression therapy May be used for progressive growth May reduce gland volume up to 50% Goiter regrowth occurs rapidly following therapy cessation – Surgery Suspicious neck lymphadenopathy History of radiation to the cervical region Rapid enlargement of nodules Papillary histology Microfollicular histology (?) Non­Toxic Goiter Non­Toxic Goiter Treatment options (compressive symptoms) – RAI ablation Volume reduction 33% ­ 66% in 80% of patients Improvement of dysphagia or dyspnea in 70% ­ 90% Post RAI hypothyroidism 60% in 8 years Post RAI Graves’ disease 10% Post RAI lifetime cancer risk 1.6% – Surgery Most commonly recommended treatment for healthy individuals Toxic Goiter Toxic Goiter Evaluate for – Graves’ disease Clinical findings (Pretibial myxedema, Opthalmopathy) Anti­TSH receptor Ab High RAUI – Thyroiditis Clinical findings (painful thyroid in Subacute thyroiditis) Low RAUI – Recent Iodine administration Amiodarone IV contrast Change in diet FNA evaluation – Not indicated in hyperthyroid nodules due to low incidence of malignancy – FNA of hyperthyroid nodules can mimic follicular neoplasms Toxic Goiter Toxic Goiter Risks of hyperthyroidism – – – – Atrial fibrillation Congestive Heart Failure Loss of bone mineral density Risks exist for both clinical or subclinical disease Toxic Goiter – – Toxicity is usually longstanding Acute toxicity may occur in hyperthyroid states (Jod Basedow effect) with Relocation to iodine replete area Contrast administration Amiodarone (37% iodine) Toxic Goiter Toxic Goiter Treatment for Toxic MNG – Thionamide medications Not indicated for long­term use due to complications May be used for symptomatic individuals until definitive treatment. – Radioiodine Primary treatment for toxic MNG Large I131 dose required due to gland size Goiter size reduction by 40% within 1 year Risk of hypothyroidism 11% ­ 24% May require second dose Used for compressive symptoms Hypothyroidism occurs in up to 70% of subtotal thyroidectomy patients Pre­surgical stabilization with thionamide medications Avoid SSKI due to risk for acute toxic symptoms Surgery Graves’ Disease Graves’ Disease Most common cause of thyrotoxicosis in the industrialized world Autoimmune condition with anti­TSHr antibodies Onset of disease may be related to severe stress which alters the immune response Diagnosis – – – TSH, T4, T3 to establish toxicosis RAIU scan to differentiate toxic conditions Anti­TPO, Anti­TSAb, fT3 if indicated RAIU in Hyperthyroid States High Uptake Low Uptake Graves’ Subacute Thyroiditis Toxic MNG Iodine Toxicosis Toxic Adenoma Thyrotoxicosis factitia Graves’ Disease Graves’ Disease Treatment – Beta blockers for symptoms – Thionamide medications May re­establish euthyroidism in 6­8 weeks 40% ­ 60% incidence of disease remission 20% incidence of allergy (rash, itching) 0.5% incidence of potentially fatal agranulocytosis – Radioiodine ablation 10% incidence of hypothyroidism at 1 year 55% ­ 75% incidence of hypothyroidism at 10 years Avoid RAI in children and pregancy – Surgery Large goiters not amenable to RAI Compressive symptoms Children, pregnancy 50% ­ 60% incidence of hypothyroidism Toxic Adenoma Toxic Adenoma Thyrotoxicosis – Hyperfunctioning nodules <2 cm rarely lead to thyrotoxicosis – Most nodules leading to thyrotoxicosis are >3 cm. Treatment Indications – Post­menopausal female Due to increased risk of bone loss – Patients over 60 Due to high risk of atrial fibrillation – Adenomas greater than 3 cm (?) Toxic Adenoma Toxic Adenoma Treatments – Antithyroid medications Not used due to complications of long­term treatment – Radioiodine Cure rate > 80% (20 mCi I131) Hypothyroidism risk 5% ­ 10% Second dose of I131 needed in 10% ­ 20% Patients who are symptomatically toxic may require control with thionamide medications before RAI to reduce risk of worsening toxicity. – Surgery Preferred for children and adolescents Preferred for very large nodules when high I131 doses needed Low risk of hypothyroidism – Ethanol Injection Rarely done in the US May achieve cure in 80% Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism Symptoms – fatigability, coldness, weight gain, constipation, low voice Signs – Cool skin, dry skin, swelling of face/hands/legs, slow reflexes, myxedema Newborn – Retardation, short stature, swelling of face/hands, possible deafness Types of Hypothyroidism – Primary – Thyroid gland failure – Secondary – Pituitary failure – Tertiary – Hypothalamic failure – Peripheral resistance Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism Cause is determined by geography – – – Low FT4, High TSH (Primary, check for antibodies) – Hashimoto’s in industrialized countries May be due to iodine excess in some costal areas Low FT4, Low TSH (Secondary or Tertiary, TRH stimulation test, MRI) Diagnosis Treatment – – Levothyroxine (T4) due to longer half life Treatment prevents bone loss, cardiomyopathy, myxedema Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism Agenesis Thyroid destruction – – – – – – – – – Hashimoto’s thyroiditis Surgery I131 ablation Infiltrative diseases Post­laryngectomy Iodine deficiency Iodine administration Anti­thyroid medications (PTU, Methimazole, Lithium, Interferon) Inherited defects Inhibition of function Transient – Postpartum – Thyroiditis Hashimoto’s Hashimoto’s (Chronic, Lymphocytic) Most common cause of hypothyroidism Result of antibodies to TPO, TBG Commonly presents in females 30­50 yrs. Usually non­tender and asymptomatic Lab values – High TSH – Low T4 – Anti­TPO Ab – Anti­TBG Ab Treat with Levothyroxine Thyroiditis Thyroiditis Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis Most common cause of goiter and hypothyroidism in the U.S. Physical – Painless diffuse goiter Lab studies – – – – Hypothyroidism Anti TPO antibodies (90%) Anti Thyroglobulin antibodies (20­50%) Acute Hyperthyroidism (5%) Treatment Levothyroxine if hypothyroid Triiodothyronine (for myxedema coma) Thyroid suppression (levothyroxine) to decrease goiter size Contraindications Stop therapy if no resolution noted – Surgery for compression or pain. – – – Silent Thyroiditis Silent Thyroiditis Post­partum Thyroiditis Silent thyroiditis is termed post­partum thyroiditis if it occurs within one year of delivery. Clinical – Hyperthyroid symptoms at presentation – Progression to euthyroidism followed by hypothyroidism for up to 1 year. – Hypothyroidism generally resolves Diagnosis – May be confused with post­partum Graves’ relapse Treatment – – – – Beta blockers during toxic phase No anti­thyroid medication indicated Iopanoic acid (Telopaque) for severe hyperthyroidism Thyroid hormone during hypothyroid phase. Must withdraw in 6 months to check for resolution. Subacute Thyroiditis Subacute Thyroiditis DeQuervain’s, Granulomatous Most common cause of painful thyroiditis Often follows a URI FNA may reveal multinuleated giant cells or granulomatous change. Course – Pain and thyrotoxicosis (3­6 weeks) – Asymptomatic euthyroidism – Hypothyroid period (weeks to months) – Recovery (complete in 95% after 4­6 months) Subacute Thyroiditis Subacute Thyroiditis DeQuervain’s, Granulomatous Diagnosis – – – – Elevated ESR Anemia (normochromic, normocytic) Low TSH, Elevated T4 > T3, Low anti­TPO/Tgb Low RAI uptake (same as silent thyroiditis) Treatment NSAID’s and salicylates. Oral steroids in severe cases Beta blockers for symptoms of hyperthyroidism, Iopanoic acid for severe symptoms – PTU not indicated since excess hormone results from leak instead of hyperfunction – Symptoms can recur requiring repeat treatment – Graves’ disease may occasionally develop as a late sequellae – – – Acute Thyroiditis Acute Thyroiditis Causes – 68% Bacterial (S. aureus, S. pyogenes) – 15% Fungal – 9% Mycobacterial May occur secondary to – – – – Pyriform sinus fistulae Pharyngeal space infections Persistent Thyroglossal remnants Thyroid surgery wound infections (rare) More common in HIV Acute Thyroiditis Acute Thyroiditis Diagnosis – – – – Warm, tender, enlarged thyroid FNA to drain abscess, obtain culture RAIU normal (versus decreased in DeQuervain’s) CT or US if infected TGDC suspected Treatment – High mortality without prompt treatment – IV Antibiotics – – Nafcillin / Gentamycin or Rocephin for empiric therapy Search for pyriform fistulae (BA swallow, endoscopy) Recovery is usually complete Riedel’s Thyroiditis Riedel’s Thyroiditis Rare disease involving fibrosis of the thyroid gland Diagnosis – – – – Thyroid antibodies are present in 2/3 Painless goiter “woody” Open biopsy often needed to diagnose Associated with focal sclerosis syndromes (retroperitoneal, mediastinal, retroorbital, and sclerosing cholangitis) Treatment – Resection for compressive symptoms – Chemotherapy with Tamoxifen, Methotrexate, or steroids may be effective – Thyroid hormone only for symptoms of hypothyroidism ...
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